Long Lost mening

[Revenant Faith and Foreign Pilgrimage] - 1.2 {We the Consuming People}

2020.10.27 23:15 elliottthomasstaude [Revenant Faith and Foreign Pilgrimage] - 1.2 {We the Consuming People}

“Woo! Drugs! Parties! More parties! A bit of composition! That’s all fun, right? Wrong! Sooo many things to plan behind the scenes! Fobbing off the right amount of publicity while making other obvious public appearances. Don’t get me started on how many eidolons we have to consult to keep on the leading edge of trends. ‘Too many’ is the answer. But when everything comes together, at just the perfect time, then it’s a beautiful spectacle, is show business. Oy, Genm! Either pass the bottle here or make another one!”
-Leeland Ockerbmen, leading vocalist of Shear Boot, after transferring from chain-punk outfit Gigeliglessssil, and before needing to be revived due to a fatal overdose
Eihks had had the opportunity to bring a couple of foreigners into the fold of his adopted city over the years. In each case, they’d reacted almost exactly the same way: amazement and childlike awe. The second of these guests had soon after become hysterical, thinking he’d been brought to some eschatological house of ill repute.
They came up to the place where her planet’s surface ran into the semi-permeable tuning field barrier stretching across it. The slowly congealing ghostly and half-solid sight of the city’s architectural hodgepodge gave his karkshesh companion a stricken but not woeful look.
The tuning field was a bit of a special case; not an Ullos container, not a normal folding junction setup, not a modified skein to keep one side’s characteristics constant and stable, but somewhere between them. It represented sixty or seventy thousand days’ worth of effort by some of Rhaagm’s very best and best-paid High Arsonists. It also made transitioning from Ktsn’s home to Eihks’s home a far more bearable experience for newbies to the whole “folding” thing. But they didn’t cross it just yet.
“Take it all in,” he said, as they walked up to the border. On one side of existence, the planet continued in its natural everyday way. Field led to more field, as field is wont to do. But - topologically close enough that it nudged into traditional senses - overlying it was the mathematical perfection of redmetal sidewalk. The tint of the anankite caught the sunlight (both that of the local star, which they’d kept around for the karkshes’ benefit, and Rhaagm’s own light-bringer) and positively threw the sparkle straight across the spectrum from ultraviolet to radio-wave frequencies. It was hard to describe or get a grasp of city building motif without seeing it; different styles all clamoring for attention, but a strangely civil sort of clamoring where every structure had a time and place to call its own.
He had confidence in the High Arsonists and others who’d put together the system for containing a whole planet in a fraction of its volume. He really did. Even so, Eihks had Ktsn hold hands to reduce the chance of one of them experiencing those fun things that occasionally happened when a person freaked out on such borders. Stuff like having one’s atoms’ electric charges get inverted or being turned into an abstract concept was vanishingly infrequent, and usually the result of someone deliberately courting disaster.
He’d personally had enough go wrong for one day, though… and some of it perhaps not by accident.
As they passed through the barrier in the Rhaagm direction and not the Gegaunli-karkshesh-planet direction, Eihks spotted the same auditor and same official from before. They waited on the same spot on the same wide sidewalk, both angled vaguely toward him. He frowned, waving to indicate that he noticed their attention and reciprocated.
“Hang on just a moment,” he said to Ktsn. “Need to talk with these people. DON’T GO ANYWHERE.”
The last was delivered with a stern pointing finger, but he knew he needn’t have worried. Between her wild staring and total bafflement, she didn’t look like she was going to so much as lift a foot without him pulling her along.
“Hello, again,” he said to the official in Rhaagmini.
The official bobbed up and down a bit, making little effort to maintain neutral buoyancy.
“Hello, Mr. Richard.”
No outward sign of recognition more significant than the acknowledgement of a returning client. However, the floating old soul also wasn’t acting precisely like it had during their previous engagement. Eihks, in his long-pedigreed history of dealing both with alien entities and with the art of engaging a provider from the client’s side of the counter, had learned certain tells for judging when a situational paradigm changed.
Such was the case now.
“Good afternoon again…”
A pause.
“I don’t believe I got your name when we met.”
“Llj!tL,H!!p.ttp’ppppppp.qip.”
The creature’s cerv-mesh made an auditory sequence resembling an organic lifeform getting hit by fifteen kilograms of thermite, a panicked stipp, a rapidly-deflating balloon, and a brick, in that order. At the same time, it abruptly flowed through a slew of color and texture shifts, landing on something like moss-covered sulfur before it returned to its original form.
“Thank you,” said Eihks, and didn’t bother to try attempting the name himself.
“You have brought a native with you,” the creature he’d decided to shorthand as Llj observed.
Eihks frowned.
“I have invited her to accompany me to the rest of the city she now calls her own.”
“The terms of the contract maintain that the asylees cannot be left unattended within city bounds until they are certifiably integrated,” the auditor said, having closed the distance while he wasn’t looking.
“I am aware of that,” the explorer replied, and he had to rein in his temper a little. “I and she will be going to my residence, and I do not once anticipate being farther than three meters from her between here and there.”
The auditor up-signed.
“So long as you are aware,” she said. She stepped back a few paces.
“I-” Eihks began, looking at Llj again. He had to stop when a titanic freight disk passed by on the road. It didn’t actually kick up any wind with its movement, but it seemed to deform local gravity by a considerable degree with its sheer mass. The idiot driving the thing had some chain-punk band turned up to a volume that was either illegal on public thoroughfares or ought to have been.
“I would like to pick up my personal effects again, if you please,” he said, when the moving travesty had left their presence. “Most of those knives and such don’t mean a great deal in the grand scheme of things, but they’re missed nevertheless.”
The hamper from earlier reappeared, positively overflowing with goods belonging to non-Eihks people, before the official shuffled the contents around. It also produced the wedge shape that was White Essay, which Eihks gingerly took and transferred to its original placement with a grimace. In a reverse conjuring act, he rapidly stowed his returned possessions away on his person, and relaxed ever so slightly when Lusendrad got strapped back into its proper location.
“Thanks.”
Eihks turned to the karkshesh farmer, who was now evenly dividing her interest between the people discussing matters tangential to herself and the many sights of the world around her.
“Ktsn, time to go,” he said, in a tongue she could actually comprehend. After startling, she gave that handclap that was the affirmative equivalent of an up-sign.
As she absently took his hand, he chin-thumbed a farewell to the odd pair.
“In case you’ve heard,” he said to them over his shoulder, “the rumors have truth.”
He didn’t hang around to see how they took it.
“Anyway, welcome to the rest of Rhaagm!” he told the woman beside him. “Don’t ask to get a full tour,” he added in a half joking tone, “it’d be several times forever before we’d get done.”
“There is no sky!” Ktsn eventually half-breathed, looking at the next-up layer of the city. “And yet, that right there is the sun, is it not?”
It was. The simulation of an uncluttered sky actually didn’t grace too many districts, or terribly large sections of those districts where it did occur. The lack of faux planetary atmospherics was one of the strange and apparently contradictory swarm of little character markers that reflected the local culture of the current epoch. Actually seeing the metal and ceramic and binder medium and various tuning fields that comprised the city’s structural organs was a form of visual debugging and pragmatically useful for some citizens. That alone was enough to keep the trend of giving up sky for sky-obscuring stuff going strong. And up there, neatly peeking through the opaque material in a way that ought to have required some clever reconfiguring of thermodynamics, a bright small orb hung.
“There was a saying that went out of style a while ago,” said the human. “‘There’s the sunshine-blessed and there’s the imaginary.’ Everything that isn’t indoors or otherwise carefully planned out to operate under certain meteorological rules sees the Rhaagm sun. ‘Indoors,’ according to the city’s definition, is something we grasp very well; how the sun actually does what it does is less so.”
He pointed to one side.
“You see that long tall spindly thing over yonder, that’s also showing through similarly ‘opaque’ material? That’s the Tower of Rhaagm. Now, you can know that your planet is technically but not yet officially part of the city because we couldn’t see that thing from your house. If it were, then… well. A lot of other things would be different besides, but we also would have picked out that big old toothpick from your neighborhood.”
There was quiet for half of a minute, then. They meandered down the sidewalk, moving at that pace that all good leisure assumes in due time, one gawping, the other taking the chance to change his every-day mental filters. It was a fantastic place, the Parsed City-State. Infinite distance in multiple directions and highly disparate senses, best described by outlining a very strangely-dimensioned manifold and making a fractal from it.
To the opposite side from where Ktsn’s home was stretched out like a biopsy sample, the industrial-growth fields were stretched out like a massive garden. A hundred hundred flavors of synthwood sprung from the dirt: crystalwillow, steelteak, plastic-oak, enamel-oak, trees that shed tungsten cones, trees that had cores of exotic matter wrapped in vacuum-tight phloem. A hundred hundred ways to say, “Yes, we CAN engineer life out of uproariously inappropriate chemistry, what of it?” The greenware moderating systems between them positively seethed with digital legions that chose to be unseen and unheard.
In the farther distance, hemming in the park on every side, buildings of numerous styles and sizes huddled into subsets representing the bleary hazy madness that was the cross-section of society as a whole. Hives and half-hovels, reefs and condominia, avant-garde cathedrals beside neo-Ulther style high-rise living-houses, a thousand garages around one supermassive stadium. No single material predominated the construction patchwork, and no single material lacked use on some building somewhere. Frequently, they stacked one upon another; stories chewed apart by midair plazas, separating completely irreconcilable differences in design. Each geological layer of the city was technically just that, a slapdash existentially-large bedrock platform hoisted n-plus-one kilometers high by the mysteries of Rhaagm and buildings’ vertebrae.
“What is that?” became the refrain of the hour. Ktsn asked it as many times as she drew breath and had the self-control to point out the object of her curiosity. Many a person without experience in placating children or acting as a tour guide would have grown tired of the game long before the farmer. Eihks, an uncommon sort on several fronts, was used to and enjoyed continuous inquiry. He kept the material flowing the entire journey.
“That’s what we call a disk. Yes, just like the thing back at Goskec Tktl. They’re… think of them like carts or wagons, but they carry people and things without needing a creature pulling them.”
“Doors. They look weird. They do what doors do.”
“Ah! That’s a holojector. Those are a bit complicated, but - you remember how you saw all those faces in the sky? Same sort of thing, but smaller, usually. They’re useful in all manner of situations.”
“No poking, he’s a nice dut gentleman, I’m sure, don’t bug him. Please.”
“That’s a - oh, that? That’s a directory. If you want to get around, you need to know where to go.”
“Hahahaha… urgh… I’ll tell you about THAT one later.”
“Advertisement. They’ve got a special event coming up for metallurgical artists and physical material scientists. Back there, at the big shiny green building.”
“Hush! Don’t point at that person. It’s a mannequin. The one next to it is what is called a ‘skitcher.’ Think of them like special guards. No, it won’t get us in trouble, but we don’t want to get any more attention from the law right now than we absolutely need.”
“Squawks. They’re little flying creatures that go where they please. If you want to see how they taste later I’ll be happy to get you a sandwich… I’ll show you what a sandwich is as well, I suppose.”
“I think all those people are part of a Process Capture congregation. Ah, yes; that woman at the front is wearing the vestments. Yes, that’s a woman. Their beliefs have to do with the veneration of particular ontological and superstructural… never mind. They’re part of a religious assembly. They’ll be going around in circles for a little while and meditating.”
“That’s a moon projection. It’s like a real moon but not. I’m afraid that explaining in any more detail will require you to either listen to me using words that’ll take half the day to clarify, or pick up some ancillary knowledge yourself first.”
“Ooh! Kitty! That’s a cat. Cats are nice. Domesticated animals native to the place whence my own people come, long ages past. They’re- Oh! OH! I’m sorry, sir! I assumed you were a non-sentient, my offense was out of ignorance. ANYway… that’s an uplifted cat. He’s a person like you or me, but sometimes a creature that looks like that will be an animal instead of a person. It’s complicated.”
“... that’s another door, Ktsn.”
They kept on in this way for some time. The ineffable shine and racket of the city’s riotous self asserted the existence of more answers, but the questions always bred faster.
Eventually they happened upon a seam in the city, about half a kilometer from where they’d crossed over from Ktsn’s home.
“Hold on,” said Eihks, warning his charge with one outstretched palm as they came up on the folding junction. “This might be unsettling.”
“What?” asked the farmer.
“You remember how we were just walking your countryside, and we came upon the city? This is going to be like that, but it’ll feel different. A lot different.”
In the event, Ktsn didn’t vomit or anything after getting a bit of an eigenhiccup in the fields mapping her to complex spacetime. She did pause for a step after they arrived, and he started to fret a bit when she began making a high nasal keening noise. It worked out in the end, though, once he patted her hand and provided numerous reassuring mutterings.
The delta of civilization’s river continued flowing and expanding around them, but a couple minutes later the little boat that was the human and the karkshesh came ashore next to a familiar structure. Delectable colors of nostalgic happiness, visible by only one of the pair. They had to wait for a huge number of cars and disks and cycles and slickers and skid-riders and a coach-class flying carpet to pass them by. Eventually they got a free opportunity to cross the street, and then they stood before their destination.
Nigel and Haeightkew, a finely-wrought flavor of housing solution. The place accounted for the entirety of the building measuring a cube five hundred meters to a side. Except for those areas where the city’s iconic and massive greatroads made themselves scarce, it was rare to see much larger sections of space set aside to do… well, anything. The upkeep of rent in such fine quarters would have ruined Eihks, but for the fact that he’d already been a tenant before the apartments became a neighborhood happening scene.
Vest-pocket restaurants that specialized in bringing the best rumor and company to the creme de la creme surrounded a chapel of the Way that a certain pioneer visited semi-regularly when able. One remote office for a particularly important research company, concerned with integrating foreign bodies into living anatomy, did business on the premises. More than a handful of the district’s Ganymedes’ off-season dwellings were to be found at Nigel and Haeightkew. There was even a moderate-sized privately owned folding and context hub, which had a very steep user’s fee but served outrageous amounts of traffic.
The outside was a riotous mix of wildly differing styles, all stolen from wildly differing cultures and crammed around each other in egalitarian disharmony: art deco balustrades leading from mangrove-wood arcades, massive teeth scrimshawed into likenesses of historic scenes, sheets of chemically-pure elements joined into prismatic geometries, bay windows crowned with minarets, glass battlements, bitumen ganglia tangled around themselves, a whole hall near the ground floor that was entirely insulated with living bees. On the inside, however, it was less a heterogeneous whole, and more a hundred tiny kingdoms engaged in cordial cutthroat competition.
Not for the first time, Eihks had to ask himself whether and how much his own presence might serve as an attractor, compared to the rainbow of variety that was the property’s character.
“‘In here, there dwell monsters and heroes and fossilized stars,’” he quoted. He frowned, hearing the lack of poetry in the line’s translation. Ah, well; Bangulorian couldn’t be equally appreciated across all barriers, he supposed.
“What?” the farmer exclaimed, angling her head up in confusion.
“Ah, it’s just that this is a place with a mixed bag of residents and businesses and whatnot, so don’t be alarmed when you see a lot of things that might seem thoroughly out-of-place.”
They entered.
Eihks immediately pulled his charge to one side to permit a brace of demons passage, just as they were trying to leave by way of the front door. Very rarely did afterlife-facet denizens show up in Rhaagm, but the restrictions on travel to and from such places - on their native demesnes’ sides, usually - oftentimes made their visitations into permanent stays. Such stays were protested with highly variant levels of violence and philosophizing, but these gnarled white-hided fellows had little enough malice in evidence. Even so, the building security eidolons obviously had them under watch, given how many semi-automated perception mechanisms trained on them during their departure.
“Hello, sir!” bubbled a greeter spirit from just inside the front door, directing its attention to the odd pair. It noticed Ktsn. “And guest, I’m sure!”
“Hello there, Mene,” Eihks answered as he walked past. He gave a forehead-thumb to the haint, striding intently. He didn’t slow down for his charge, but he also didn’t need to do so; she was good at keeping a strong pace. Maybe not great at doing so for long distances, but this was hardly a Marathon. Gegaunli kaskshes, he guessed, would perform admirably in a lot of situations calling for an hour or less of absolutely grueling discipline.
They both got into an elevator, her shortly after he assured the woman that they weren’t going into a cell with only one exit just for the fun of it. Instant ascension followed.
About four hundred vertical meters later, they stepped out onto a landing. Eihks looked out over the banister, down over a grotesque little indoor field big enough for a quiet stubby artificial river, at people enjoying a few minutes of peace. A decent-sized boulder on the field’s edge supported a small herd of napping, chatting, laughing souls. A couple of them got upset when a child’s eye-wateringly neon kite came within a few fingers of inflicting concussive trauma.
“This city is most strange,” said Ktsn.
Eihks couldn’t disagree.
“You’re a part of it now, so don’t go making any negative generalizations just yet,” he advised. He didn’t actually hold onto her hand anymore, seeing as they were on a nearly-straight path to his domicile, down the hall and around one left hook. However, he stayed very close indeed.
“All of these people live here?” she asked.
Eihks motioned for her to step aside. They let a stream of close-packed youngsters flow by, following the manifestation of an instructor eidolon who was part of the building’s scholastic services. The kids were of the general persuasion common to many thinking species: exuberant in their enthusiams, quiet in their uncertainties, and as capricious as any living thing could be.
“Well, yes,” he said, “Rhaagm’s a large place as I said. Think of it like your village on a broader scale. Not just hundreds of people, but-”
“No; I mean, are all of these people individuals who live in this building?”
“Oh. Oh! Yes. Well, not all necessarily, but the majority of them, yes. They’re people who have quarters more often than not, unless the numbers have changed since I was last home, but some are visitors, and some might have their places of work located here without actually staying on the premises.”
“But… how do they have enough room to grow their food?” she asked. “I saw no gardens or farmland outside this building, and that-”
She indicated the verdant region on the lower level.
“-cannot possibly supply enough goods to satisfy all the people here! Even if there are ten such places in this building, and all the others are used to the fullest extent and efficiency, they could not manage the necessaries for… what, a thousand people who live here?”
Eihks snorted.
“Actually, we have CONSIDERABLY more residents than a thousand, but we’ll get to that in due time. We make food without having to grow it.”
“What!? How?”
All the mysteries and all the wonders and all the miracles of existence splayed out before her, and her first true moment of incredulity arrives when contemplating the possibility of generative comestible production. Best to not even mention the slight recent uptick in people installing infusion-based digestion systems.
“I’ll show you!” he chortled back. “It won’t make sense on the face of it, but…”
He let his mouth turn down at the thought of recommending that she receive a cerv-mesh. That was a big bridge, no mistake.
“... you’ll understand it in due time. That and much else.”
Moving around a cart with several riders, he was about to say something else, and she to ask something else, when they reached the hook down to his apartment door and stopped dead.
“Oh dear saints and sinners, what penance do I now?” he half-whispered upon seeing the crowd milling around the front of his home. A positive refugee camp of pundits and journalists, both muckrakers and honest inquirers. Scattered in their number were fans, fans of fans, people who came along because their friends were going, and even a few anti-expansion activists all sprawled like weirdly shaped limbs of some dubiously friendly beast. Even as he watched, a few more swelled their ranks. They all conducted business, talking among their own number, but in a machined, fractionalized way. It was the sort of behavior one might adopt when waiting for something to happen, and trying to fill the time until it did while keeping an eye out for the commencement of festivities, all while standing on the verge of losing focus from exhaustion.
But, amiable day, they were saved additional wandering to find the promised land - their ambulatory Zion had come to them.
“Vermin without the manners to wait until the corpse stops moving,” Eihks growled. As the tide of febrile attention-seekers limbered up and maliciously walked in the explorer’s direction, he spoke to Ktsn in a whistling fury. The reproduction of a second tongue coming from his mesh sounded half-drowned.
“They might start saying or asking things that are aimed at you. If they do, respond only with ‘No comment.’ Alright?”
“I will do that,” the Gegaunli karkshesh shot back. “What is happening?”
“All these people are like…”
He struggled for a second to draw an adequate cross-cultural parallel.
“Think of them as bards, with less interest in writing good songs, and more interest in writing songs which are popular - no matter what they have to do to get there.”
“Are popular songs not usually good?” asked Ktsn, almost indignantly, as the wave rushed onward.
“Oh, maybe in your experience. I envy you that if such is the case.”
The crowd began lapping up against the two step-stomping people. Eihks managed at the last moment to grab her hand once more, lest the frenzy separate them and begin filleting their individual living egos. Camera utilities, lighting apparatus, magical recording means, sensory suites running the length from “baby’s first” to “supermaximum quality,” and even fifteen or sixteen pads full of interpolation paper being used by a man who was either dedicated to the point of being mentally ill or just mentally ill outright. These and many more weapons made war on dignity and discretion with a fanatic fervor.
“Mr. Richard, have you ever passed along your condition?”
“Mr. Richard! Mr. Richard! Did you start your career before being revived or after?”
“No comment.”
“Sir, would you consider yourself happy with the outcome of your service in the cause of the city?”
“No comment.”
“Excuse me,” murmured a bent-backed kink-tailed kindly fregnost matron, leaning toward Ktsn. How she’d gotten so close without being trampled herself was a bit of a conundrum. “How are you enjoying our fair city thus far?”
Now, that woman was dangerous.
The farmer, not knowing Rhaagmini from the random twitterings of squawks, fixed the fregnost’s nearest arm with a single curious eye as Eihks pulled her along. She didn’t reply.
“Mr. Richard, are you engaged in an affair with this native?” hollered a pohostinlat, who - wonder of wonders - appeared faintly ashamed of asking the question.
“No comment.”
Another six or seven needling probes.
Someone asking about Eihks’s family relations and whether THEY were also Tufcich specimens.
“No comment.”
“Mr. Richard!” came a voice that was caustically agreeable. Eihks caught sight of Sheyey Duspink, careful and intentional antagonist of the Journals of Gem Pioneering for years, approaching with a whetted smile. Her expression said, “We don’t have any problems here, do we?”
“Did you deliberately construct the circumstances of your resurrection, or did you let most of the chips fall where they may?”
Her voice, brazen and mocking, shot across the others vying for their fistfuls of flesh. Eihks gave her a look. His face contorted, his mouth beginning to open. Sheyey’s brow arched with dignity.
A mad giggle began to creep up from his throat. There wasn’t much of a reason for it at first, just an abstract formulation and repeating the words of her question in a funny mental voice. Then, upon seeing Sheyey’s expression falter ever so slightly, he had an image of himself losing it and her grin shattering like hammered glass. That, of course, was hilarious, and made him half-snort. He caught the laugh behind his incisors where it struggled to get out with all its might. As his change in composure registered, his nemesis’s face quivered, a gelatin with poor viscosity.
When the laugh came out, had it been a paperweight or other similar knickknack, its inertia and direction would have outright beheaded one Sheyey Duspink.
Oh, she hated that.
Watching how she tried to freeze her expression, this woman who over many years had nursed a scientist’s enmity for what they cannot control, he imagined the wheels of brain trains slipping their brain tracks. That was it, that was the end, he absolutely lost it. If laughing could still hurt, he’d be unsteadily trying to ask someone to cut short the agony.
The hysteria put most of the crowd off for a second, then they grew teeth and claws and they dug back in. All the while, Eihks was almost jiggling, honk-braying his incredibly obnoxious guffaws. Continued questions began increasingly directing themselves toward Ktsn, since her lanky companion obviously wasn’t answering anything until he got under control. For her part, she seemed to actually be considering if it might be safer to gnaw off her own arm in the name of self-preservation. Unfortunately, articulating that thought extended his fit by several more seconds.
Bringing himself to a standstill, he brandished his teeth at his old spinster foe and slowly turned away.
“No comment!” he eventually wheezed.
Who knew people would go with THAT performance. Pestilent misfortune… but oh, it was good to wipe that condescending female’s face clean for an instant.
The human and karkshesh managed to more-or-less force entry into the apartment with themselves as biological battering rams. An almost audible moan of disappointment snaked into the entryway after them.
“I’m well and truly fed up with those sorts of people!” he said with a smile, engaging the apartment’s noise-canceling and banishing the windows into nonexistence. Slapping his hands together to dislodge psychic dust, he stepped farther into his dwelling after the stationary Ktsn. He took stock and was relieved to see things hadn’t changed in the slightest.
Messy, when being honest, was a very kind term for his lifestyle.
He picked up a few things littering the floor, and cleaned up a pile of crumbs on the edge of the table with his dæmon cluster. He got to setting up a chair for himself and a seat for his karkshesh guest, and began cooking up a meaty supper in his rarely-used culinary unit.
As he did so, he tossed around the likely outcomes of his encounter with Ms. Duspink. Probably not amazing, but time would tell.
“Make yourself at home!” he told his newest associate, as he discarded his jacket.
He was making himself at home as well while he gave such advice.
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2020.10.13 16:01 1Valkyrie I hate school and don't know what to do, HELP.

Just a quick disclaimer, I don't speak english as my native so sorry in advance if there is any misspelled words. And sorry if this is long, I really needed to get this out of my system.
Hi! I'm a (15F) and simply have no motivation to do anyithing. I'm in 9th grade and it's time for me to choose a highschool, but I don't want to. For years I've hated school, mostly for bullying and awful teachers, but mostly for the lack of choice. I've always wanted to become a writer when I grew up, but now I don't know if I can do it. I stopped writing in fifth grade since that's the time when we got more homework and grades became more importent. I was never really intrested in the subjects at school either, but sure, math, swedish (native language) and english is importent. I never had a problem with thoose subjects since I knew it was really importent.
Around 7th grade I started giving up, too much work and pressure to perform well. I often got so stressed out that I would stay home from school because I had so much to do. I also got sick often since I didn't have a proper diet (annorexia, caused by bullying) and stress as I mentioned. I never got the time to improve my writing or other skills for that matter since I had to prioritise school over everything.
In 8th grade I stopped caring at all, I was a mess. Unhappy with everything. I had good grades in subjects I never understood, I was tired of pretending. I also switched schools because we had to move, so I didn't have any friends. I had (still have) a very high absence since I've lost all purpose. Not only going to school but in my hobbies aswell. I played alot of piano, gamed with my friends and ofcourse writing. But I have no energy to do anything anymore, I feel useless. I have no skills and no chances of going to highschool because I'm years behind in almost every major subject.
My absence have always caused my parents to be stressed out and force me to school, but all I do when I'm there is stare into a wall. There is no mening for me to go there. I want to find my true self and purpose again, and school does the opposite to me. I tell my parents again and again, they listen and say that they understand, but they never help me. I've talked to a therapist but she doesn't really seem to offer any better advice then my parents.
I honestly have no idea what to do! I have no ambition or intrests anymore and don't know what to do in life. Sometimes I've wanted to kill myself because I feel like I'm a burden to my parents, espacially my mom. She has yelled at me a couple of times that she doesn't want to have to deal with my principle again regariding my absence. I see how stressed out she is and it breaks my heart, I coulnd't imagine her if she found out I had taken my life for some shit like this. But I feel terrible regardless, school, grades, all this pressure now and in the future. I don't know if I'm even capable to get a deccent job in the postion I'm in now. I also like to add that the idea of high school seems like a waste of time since I don't even know what to do.
Please, I need some advice. I don't know how much longer I'll be able to take this... or my mother for that matter.
submitted by 1Valkyrie to offmychest [link] [comments]


2020.10.13 12:31 scriptoriumpythons Response To WP About God, Satan, and Death

[WP] An Empire of differentiating aliens species has declared war on humanity for defying their orders to join their ranks and just before the first move can be taken the counsel is confronted by three humanoid beings, God, the Devil and The Grim reaper.


Ambassador P'toama, dressed in his most resplendent official vestments, arose from his seat to address the high council of the Xanorki Stellar Republic regarding the newest sentient species to be offered the glory of subservience. Approaching the podium his blue fur bristled as he reflected on the paradoxical nature of the beings he had encountered during his travels. These beings who had introduced themselves as the Terrans had greeted him in a fairly standard way at first, a male in official and likely militaristic garments flanked by beings with weaponry was almost universal to every species during encounters with the unknown. No, what perplexed him was the profound lack of bluster or insult this Terran envoy conducted himself with. All the species of the galaxy know that when you meet a potential enemy you show him your strength by making a show of power through insult. P'toama considered that Perhaps the Terrans must be weak so they instead attempt to placate but that idea didn't feel right either. Nearing the podium P'toama reflected further on the strange custom of wellwishing which the Terran envoy, who self identified as "Major Damian Patrick", had engaged in upon ending their confrontation of words. Pressing the button which would levitate the podium to the center of the room P'toama readied himself to make the same proposal he always made when another species went out of line. Gazing upon the gathered council members garbed in the colours of his people, the silver and gold of victory, he began his speech.
"Grand and illustrious members of the highest council of councils, elected by the will of the Xanorki people for the exercise of our species' collective will and dominion over those less evolved than us, I declare unto you that I have returned from my mission to subjugate the Terrans by peace; and they have defied our will. The Terrans are a backwards people who once showed great promise! They once had elections such as ours, libertine worldviews as our are, and had even discovered primitive versions of our scientific doctrines. Yet, roughly 300 years ago they devolved back to the state of brutish savagery which they practice to this day. The beings of Terra did not extinguish their old God's, as is the natural progression for those who learn the scientific doctrines of strength and democracy, but returned to faith in an imaginary sky lord after only experiencing truth for a short time. They once exorcised franchise for all and we're well on their way towards understanding the great institution of violence by ballot. Yet, after only a few hundred years of half democracies which they called republics the beings of Terra flocked to a monarch to be their head, embracing with wholeness of heart the primitive idea that one man ought to have power over others by virtue of birth rather than by virtue of vote. Their retention of religion and monarchy led to the worst foolishness of all: the beings of Terra abandoned hedonism and preferred the harsh lives which their main religion, before you ask yes they are so primitive as to have multiple, claims to be a means by which they might experience redemption."
P'toama paused for effect as the councilors reacted with shock and disgust. It was considered common knowledge that once a species began discovering the doctrines of science that they could never return to religion or the elite castes which religion created. That the Terrans had somehow reverted and devolved in such a way was unthinkable and yet it had been so. P'toama reached into his pocket and pulled out the two gifts Major Damian had given unto him as a sign of "friendship" from Terra's leaders, as if the most evolved species could befriend a bunch of religious monarchists without correcting such a fatal flaw. He lifted them up to silence the councilors.
"Behold and I shall yet speak more! In my hand are the two Gifts which the leaders of Terra sent with me as tokens of peace. The first is a religious tool which was 'blessed' by their highest religious authority, a man they call Pope. This tool is called a Rosary and is meant for counting prayers to the mother of the Terran God. The second item which I bear unto thee is from the Emperor of Terra. He gifts into us this golden representation of a plant which to the Terrans represents peace which they call the olive branch. A gift only their emperor has the authority to extend. "
P'toama made a show of flinging both objects to the ground of the council hall with the force of all his hatred and rage.
"These 'Gifts' were given after these Terrans not only informed me of their unwillingness to submit to our glorious republic but these each represent one of the two most egregious of their backwards ideologies! Therefore, i propose unto this highest voting body of all the galaxy that because subjugation by peace was utterly rejected by these Terrans, that we subjugate them by force of arms; either to eradicate their savage beliefs before they infect other species who are of weaker minds, or to chastise them as a parent chastises a misbehaving child that we might teach them the truth of all things. "
With that P'toama made the podium descend to its original place on the floor. The two presiding elders lifting their arms to begin calling the vote, but P'toama already knew the result would be to subjugate the Terrans and cleans them of wrong belief. After all, the empire had need of miners for certain asteroids and death worlds which humans were perfectly suited to excavate. Perhaps in a generation or two they could be allowed to join the military as auxiliaries. P'toama mused that such a role could suit a properly tamed human quite nicely.
An hour later The Elders tallied the vote. Nearly unanimously the council had done as P'toama predicted. They all believed this to be the only reasonable course of action. Once the declaration was read, to thunderous applause, P'toama began to arise. His son, mak'toa was in the navy and he wanted to be the first to tell him of this new chance for glory. Families which are thought to be well evolved tend to attract more opportunities for mating. P'toama, having stood, realized the room had hushed in an instant. Confused, he looked around and quickly beheld the phenomena which had ended the carousing which comes with a new war.
The two gifts of Terra, the rosary and the golden olive branch, had begun to glow with a warm golden light. P'toama realized at once that the Terrans must have sent him home with a weapon of some sort. He readied himself to die realizing he had been foolish not to dispose of these trinkets into the vacuum of space. However, his expectations were not met. Instead the radiance glowed even more fiercely, growing in severe intensity causing all in the chamber to cover their eyes in fear and trembling. Then a flash!
When the gathered members of the council looked upon where the trinkets had been their eyes were met by three strange beings. The first was slender, reptilian, and decrepit Wherever it's skin showed, and also seemed to be missing it's legs. It's wings had mostly rotted away but the few feathers which remained had the most gorgeous jewels that any of the Xanorki had ever laid eyes upon. This being also wore a robe of gold and silver which was so extravagant as to indicate the greatest and highest evolution and status; yet he was cast down upon the ground and bound by chains which glowed a ghastly orange white from sheer heat. All in the chamber who were keen to notice finer details, P'toama chief among them, saw that this being was clearly in agony and that the heat of the chain was clearly visible by how strongly it distorted the air above and around the links.
The second being hovered to the right of the other two, his wings were full and healthy yet strange. For he had six black wings which seemed to wrap themselves around his body in a form almost resembling a hooded black robe. In his hand he carried a large scythe adorned in what seemed to be functional eyes. In a somehow even more terrifying twist his face was actually on fire yet he seemed to be in no pain. Every Xanorki who looked upon him felt a great and existential pit of fear in their guts but found it a herculean task to look away from him.
Those who did saw the third man, if you could even call him that. This thing looked simultaneously distinctly Terran yet was also utterly incomprehensible. His skin seemed to look like a tan man's skin yet it shone bright like bronze. Upon his head was either one crown of thorns or an infinite number of luminous crowns. His robe was simple and white, like the clothes of the least evolved subjugated species, yet despite being the purest of white robes they were simultaneously stained in blood. His feet and hands each had holes from wounds the placement of which seemed, in that moment, more severe than any which P'toama had ever seen. Merely to gaze upon them caused all the Xanorki to feel worse remorse than if they had betrayed their empire and families. The right foot of this man bore down upon the head of the serpentine first man. Finally the face of this third man seemed simultaneously fleshly and ethereal, merciful and vengeful, kind and harsh culminating in eyes aflame!
Every single being in the room doubled over in fear so great as to cause physical pain. Most retched and puked, almost seeming allergic to the presence of these beings: two of them in particular. Following, a booming voice proclaimed:
"Be not afraid! For the great God and heavenly king has shewed himself into thee. He who is the Holy Lord God of power and might, Heaven and Earth are full of His Glory for He was and Is and is to come! Glory be unto the Father, and unto the Son, and unto The Holy Ghost as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be; World without end. Amen!"
It had been the second man whose voice boomed. As he spoke P'toama shivered, he did not believe in deities it had been proven that they do not exist! This had to be some Terran trick! But he did not have long to dwell on his doubt for the third man, God, spoke next. God spoke in a voice which seemed to be three voices chanting in unison both beautifully and terribly with a single voice which sounded still and small yet grande and regal:
"I AM the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the ending, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty. Fear not; I am the first and the last."
At those last words P'toama and all the others in the chamber felt that harsh aura which oppressed them dissipate, lightening in force so that they could at least hear what "God" had to say. God continued thusly:
"Why do ye seek to oppress my chosen children upon the earth? Have I not been long-suffering with you in not destroying you utterly for your transgressions? Ye follow after the serpent whom I have crushed under my feet in all your ways and do no good wheresoever ye go. Verily verily I say unto you this lucifer whom I crush underfoot is your father for he seeks also to kill, to steal, and to destroy. I have spared you from the beginning until now, yet your evil is fulfilled. By my command Satan himself shall reveal to you this day his intentions towards you!"
Thus the first man, " Satan/lucifer", began seething:
"You have done as I have wished and followed after the stars of heaven which fell with me. You have engaged in every sin and debauchery which I have tempted you to and the fires of hell burn hotly with your kindred! I would not tell you this of my own accord for I am the father of lies and would tempt you with sweet promises. Yet, even I cannot defy the spoken word of The LORD. I desire you to battle the humans for your armies are countless and your desire strong. Whether you win or lose is of no consequence to me. I only desire that you and the children of God should suffer utterly. Go forth my minions and put the image bearers of God to the sword!"
At that moment God twisted His foot down into Lucifer's head causing him to screech in great pain and agony. The likes of which had not been heard ever before by the council members or the high elders. Once Satan had been silenced the second man pounded his scythe on the floor twice and spoke again:
"Listen ye to the angel who brings God's judgement which is death to the wicked, thus the Lord's justice shall be upon you. If you continue to devise wickedness against the children of God, your works shall be shattered and your people utterly destroyed. They who are weaker than you shall slay you and you shall serve them upon your knees for you have defied the Lord God. Thus the Lord's mercy might be given to ye, if you shall repent of this evil and submit yourselves to God in baptism. Then shall God save your people and be your God, and He will make you a mighty kingdom second only to his image bearers!"
Then God spoke again saying:
" It is not my will that any should perish but that all should have eternal life."
All the councilmen had, by this point become wroth at the words being spoken by this supposed God, but none here brave enough to speak up to such a being who was clearly highly evolved. All except on ambassador who had reached the limit of the stupidity he felt he could endure. P'tuama then boldly proclaimed:
"this being is no God! Evolved beyond us perhaps, but no God exists! We shall destroy Terra and every person upon the face of it. Then once we have learned to fight your tricks we shall come for you and our great pride shall be avenged!"
With that great sorrow fell upon the face of God resulting the aura of oppressive force resuming at it's full intensity causing all the hall to fall down upon their faces again and wretch violently. Satan cackled and spoke through shocks of pain.
"They. Are. Miiiiiiiine."
At these words all the Xanorki in the hall screeched in pain with wailing and gnashing of teeth as the words "MENE MENE TEKEL UPHARSIN" carved themselves into the skin of every being there, P'toamo was no exception. As his purple blood oozed down his chest he resolved to make the human God pay for this embarrassment. Then God, Satan, and Death disappeared from the hall. Gone, without a trace.
- 1 earth year later-
Grand Admiral P'toama's armada exited hyperspace just outside the Sol system. 2000 of the greatest dreadnoughts ever crafted by his people supported by 10000 corvettes and frigates all under his command with a single purpose: kill. All. Humans. This almighty force was the largest gathering of warships in recorded history, and for good reason. Terrans bred like rabbits and were thought by high command to have so severely overcrowded their planets that they might have the ability to field an army of 4 billion men with at minimum 600 large ships of primitive yet troublesome firepower. The issue being that, after thorough analysis of their anatomy military intelligence concluded that Terran physiology made each Terran soldier equal in worth to 5 Xanorki in combat.
The plan was crude, but brilliant in its simplicity. First, ambush and overwhelm the human fleets with vastly superior numbers and firepower. Second, bombard each human settlement from orbit till the fleet has depleted 99% of total ordinance. Finally, send in the warriors to kill and destroy whatever is left; paying special attention to desecrate and temples or holy buildings where the humans might call upon the hyper-evolved being they call God. The Xanorki had taken to calling Him Species G Number 1 (SGN1 for short). Unfortunately for Grand Admiral P'toama, there was a welcoming committee waiting for him where he exited hyperspace. Three small human ships were simply sitting there. After a tense moment of shock, Admiral P'toama had just lost the element of surprise, the lead human ship hailed Admiral P'toama's flagship. The Admiral opened a channel and saw Damien Patrick, now also of higher rank it seemed, on the other end. Damien spoke first;
"What is the meaning of this?!? You are in Imperial Terran space! Turn around or we will have to consider this an act of war and defend ourselves accordingly. "
P'toama replied:
" This is not war, this is extermination. Helmsman, open fire! "
Nearly immediately the three small ships in front of the armada were destroyed but the video feed kept playing. Admiral P'toama's eyes grew in realization. He looked at Damien's face and watched as a predatory and psychotic grin gazed back upon him and Damien said one last sentence before cutting the link:
"The pope told us to greet our guests with FULL hospitality. DEUS VULT!!! "
In the twinkling of an eye 7000 Terran dreadnaughts exited hyperspace from behind the Xanorkite armada guns ablazing. Each of these vaguely triangular ships was roughly 3/4 the size of the Xanorki dreadnaughts and approximately 2/3 as powerful. P'toama could hardly react before almost a third of his corvettes and frigates were destroyed by the initial ambush. Luckily for him, once the captains of the fleet realized what was happening most of them raised shields without waiting for orders. His helmsman informed him that the Terran ships didn't seem to be shielded and that the Terran weaponry wasn't reading as strong as equivalent Xanorkite ones
P'toama weighed his options quickly for time was of the essence. On the one hand if they conserved their weapon use the ships of the fleet would have enough energy generated to disengage and retreat to hyperspace in 10 minutes, on the other hand the Terran ships were more fragile than his own even if they had more dreadnaughts. Also of not was the lack of Terran support ships to act as a screen against fighters and bombers. Admiral P'toama decided on committing his forces to battle this forgoing easy escape to hyperspace. Then he spoke:
"Order all ships about. Have each dreadnought and their accompanying support ships focus on one Terran dreadnought at a time. Heavy focus on breaking their center!"
After 30 minutes of intense fighting the center of the Terran fleet looked like it was about to crumble, this had come at heavy losses to the Xanorkite fleet but an encirclement of part of Terra's forces seemed plausible. P'toama would remember this moment as the point where everything fell apart for him and his forces, The Terrans had laid a second ambush. By the time P'toama realized what had happened it was too late. 24 more human dreadnoughts and 800 corvette sized support craft arrived from the direction of Terra, effectively encircling what was left of the P'toama armada. P'toama hailed Admiral Damian, if he was going to die we wanted to know something first. Damien answered the call with a very self satisfied smirk on his face and asked:
"So that's 2 ambushes well done and would we like a side of unconditional surrender with that sir?"
Admiral P'toama unbuttoned his shirt and replied:
"Not a chance. The weak die to make way for the strong who predate them. That I and my men have lost this battle means we're weren't evolved enough to win and therefore deserve to die. I just want to know one thing first, what does this mean?"
Admiral P'toama's ship started shaking violently with each hit , they had lost their shields. It was only a matter of time before the end. Damian looked at the scars on P'toama's chest and asked:
"How did you get this?"
P'toama replied:
"The foul being you call God marked me so. What does it mean?"
Damien looked into Admiral P'toama's eyes with sincerity now. He saw P'toama's ship shaking with sporadic sparks, smoke and explosions in the background with each volley they took from the Terran guns. Damian's voice shook knowing what was coming and resolved to look his for in the eye as it happened. He would bid the aliens whom he had wanted to befriend farewell on his journey to hell by granting is last wish and being there for him when it happened. So Damien replied:
" Mene; God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it. Tekel; Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting. Peres; Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians."
Not but a moment later the video feed cut. Admiral Damian already knew what had happened, but he asked comms what had happened anyway. The enemy's flagship had been destroyed. P'toama was dead. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "I did tell thee that thou art MIIIIIIIINE."
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2020.09.16 18:28 De_verwarde_man a “lost decade” for equity returns as stock investments turn “anemic.”

Indexbeleggen zo breed mogelijk dat is het devies voor de meeste FIRE adepten. Gemiddeld 5/6/7% rendement over een zeer lange periode mag je verwachten. Maar ja, resultaten uit het verleden.....
Stel je wilt binnen nu en een jaar of 10/15 je doel bereikt hebben, een lost decade kan dat dwarsbomen, zie het artikel hieronder.
Over 30 jaar gemiddeld haal je wellicht die 5-7% wel, maar voor hetzelfde geld is het komende decennium gewoon ruk? Persoonlijk hoop en vertrouw ik erop dat het wel meevalt, en met het herbeleggen van dividend etc dat er toch een goed rendement valt te behalen. Voorlopig is het nog TINA i.v.m. de lage rente. Maar ik heb geen glazen bol. Wat is jullie mening en idee voor het komende decennium?
Blackstone’s Executive Vice Chairman Tony James said there could be a “lost decade” for equity returns as stock investments turn “anemic.”
https://www.cnbc.com/2020/09/16/blackstone-warns-of-lost-decade-with-anemic-stock-market-returns.html?__source=twitter%7Cmain
SINGAPORE — The coming years could be a “lost decade” for equity returns as companies struggle to grow their earnings, Blackstone’s Executive Vice Chairman, Tony James, told CNBC on Wednesday.
James, who’s attending the virtual Singapore Summit, told CNBC’s “Squawk Box Asia” that stock prices may not rise further after becoming fully valued over a “five- to 10-year horizon.”
“I think this could be a lost decade in terms of equity appreciation,” he said, referring to a term commonly used to describe a period in the 1990s when Japan experienced economic stagnation.
He explained that current low interest rates may not dip further and may instead rise to more normal levels in the coming years.
Higher interest rates, in many instances, tend to negatively affect corporate earnings and stock prices. High borrowing costs will eat into company profits and hurt share prices.
There’s a hunger for yield so investors are coming off the sidelines ... and looking for investments that they can get some kind of returns.Tony JamesEXECUTIVE VICE CHAIRMAN, BLACKSTONE
In addition, companies will face “plenty of headwinds” that put pressure on earnings, he said. That include higher taxes, increase in operating costs, less efficient supply chains and “deglobalization” that will hurt productivity, explained James.
“All of that will be economic headwinds for companies. So I think you can have disappointing long term earnings growth with multiples coming in a little bit, and I can see anemic equity returns over the next five to 10 years,” he added.

Near zero interest rates drive markets up

Despite the severe economic hit from the coronavirus pandemic, U.S. stock markets have climbed higher after plunging in March.
James attributed such momentum to the Federal Reserve bringing interest rates down to near zero, which left investors hunting for yield with few options to park their money. That’s why investors are piling into riskier bonds and stocks, he explained.
“Zero interest rates is the driving force here, near zero interest rates,” he said.
“There’s a hunger for yield so investors are coming off the sidelines — there’s still a lot of money on the sidelines, actually — and looking for investments that they can get some kind of returns,” he added.
While that resulted in stock markets that are “fully valued” and “a little ahead of itself,” the U.S. central bank deserves credit for preventing what could have been a “major meltdown,” said James.
“The Fed move was unprecedented size and speed ... without that, there was serious risk of spiraling down to a kind of depression and when you start having that credit problems, it will ripple through markets very quickly.”
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2020.08.13 22:21 OB8O Every Legal 4-Letter Word In Scrabble

AAHS AALS ABAC ABAS ABBA ABBE ABBS ABED ABET ABID ABLE ABLY ABOS ABRI ABUT ABYE ABYS ACAI ACCA ACED ACER ACES ACHE ACHY ACID ACME ACNE ACRE ACTA ACTS ACYL ADAW ADDS ADDY ADIT ADOS ADRY ADZE AEON AERO AERY AESC AFAR AFFY AFRO AGAR AGAS AGED AGEE AGEN AGER AGES AGHA AGIN AGIO AGLU AGLY AGMA AGOG AGON AGUE AHED AHEM AHIS AHOY AIAS AIDA AIDE AIDS AIGA AILS AIMS AINE AINS AIRN AIRS AIRT AIRY AITS AITU AJAR AJEE AKAS AKED AKEE AKES AKIN ALAE ALAN ALAP ALAR ALAS ALAY ALBA ALBE ALBS ALCO ALEC ALEE ALEF ALES ALEW ALFA ALFS ALGA ALIF ALIT ALKO ALKY ALLS ALLY ALMA ALME ALMS ALOD ALOE ALOO ALOW ALPS ALSO ALTO ALTS ALUM ALUS AMAH AMAS AMBO AMEN AMES AMIA AMID AMIE AMIN AMIR AMIS AMLA AMMO AMOK AMPS AMUS AMYL ANAL ANAN ANAS ANCE ANDS ANES ANEW ANGA ANIL ANIS ANKH ANNA ANNO ANNS ANOA ANON ANOW ANSA ANTA ANTE ANTI ANTS ANUS APAY APED APER APES APEX APOD APOS APPS APSE APSO APTS AQUA ARAK ARAR ARBA ARBS ARCH ARCO ARCS ARDS AREA ARED AREG ARES ARET AREW ARFS ARGH ARIA ARID ARIL ARIS ARKS ARLE ARMS ARMY ARNA AROW ARPA ARSE ARSY ARTI ARTS ARTY ARUM ARVO ARYL ASAR ASCI ASEA ASHY ASKS ASPS ATAP ATES ATMA ATOC ATOK ATOM ATOP ATUA AUAS AUFS AUKS AULA AULD AUNE AUNT AURA AUTO AVAL AVAS AVEL AVER AVES AVID AVOS AVOW AWAY AWDL AWED AWEE AWES AWFY AWKS AWLS AWNS AWNY AWOL AWRY AXAL AXED AXEL AXES AXIL AXIS AXLE AXON AYAH AYES AYIN AYRE AYUS AZAN AZON AZYM
BAAL BAAS BABA BABE BABU BABY BACH BACK BACS BADE BADS BAEL BAFF BAFT BAGH BAGS BAHT BAHU BAIL BAIT BAJU BAKE BALD BALE BALK BALL BALM BALS BALU BAMS BANC BAND BANE BANG BANI BANK BANS BANT BAPS BAPU BARB BARD BARE BARF BARK BARM BARN BARP BARS BASE BASH BASK BASS BAST BATE BATH BATS BATT BAUD BAUK BAUR BAWD BAWL BAWN BAWR BAYE BAYS BAYT BEAD BEAK BEAM BEAN BEAR BEAT BEAU BECK BEDE BEDS BEDU BEEF BEEN BEEP BEER BEES BEET BEGO BEGS BEIN BELL BELS BELT BEMA BEND BENE BENI BENJ BENS BENT BERE BERG BERK BERM BEST BETA BETE BETH BETS BEVY BEYS BHAI BHAT BHEL BHUT BIAS BIBB BIBS BICE BIDE BIDI BIDS BIEN BIER BIFF BIGA BIGG BIGS BIKE BILE BILK BILL BIMA BIND BINE BING BINK BINS BINT BIOG BIOS BIRD BIRK BIRL BIRO BIRR BISE BISH BISK BIST BITE BITO BITS BITT BIZE BLAB BLAD BLAE BLAG BLAH BLAM BLAT BLAW BLAY BLEB BLED BLEE BLET BLEW BLEY BLIN BLIP BLIT BLOB BLOC BLOG BLOT BLOW BLUB BLUE BLUR BOAB BOAK BOAR BOAS BOAT BOBA BOBS BOCK BODE BODS BODY BOEP BOET BOFF BOGS BOGY BOHO BOHS BOIL BOIS BOKE BOKO BOKS BOLA BOLD BOLE BOLL BOLO BOLT BOMA BOMB BONA BOND BONE BONG BONK BONY BOOB BOOH BOOK BOOL BOOM BOON BOOR BOOS BOOT BOPS BORA BORD BORE BORK BORM BORN BORS BORT BOSH BOSK BOSS BOTA BOTE BOTH BOTS BOTT BOUK BOUN BOUT BOWL BOWR BOWS BOXY BOYF BOYG BOYO BOYS BOZO BRAD BRAE BRAG BRAK BRAN BRAS BRAT BRAW BRAY BRED BREE BREI BREN BRER BREW BREY BRIE BRIG BRIK BRIM BRIN BRIO BRIS BRIT BROD BROG BROO BROS BROW BRRR BRUS BRUT BRUX BUAT BUBA BUBO BUBS BUBU BUCK BUDA BUDI BUDO BUDS BUFF BUFO BUGS BUHL BUHR BUIK BUKE BULB BULK BULL BUMF BUMP BUMS BUNA BUND BUNG BUNK BUNN BUNS BUNT BUOY BURA BURB BURD BURG BURK BURL BURN BURP BURR BURS BURY BUSH BUSK BUSS BUST BUSY BUTE BUTS BUTT BUYS BUZZ BYDE BYES BYKE BYRE BYRL BYTE
CAAS CABA CABS CACA CACK CADE CADI CADS CAFE CAFF CAGE CAGS CAGY CAID CAIN CAKE CAKY CALF CALK CALL CALM CALO CALP CALX CAMA CAME CAMO CAMP CAMS CANE CANG CANN CANS CANT CANY CAPA CAPE CAPH CAPI CAPO CAPS CARB CARD CARE CARK CARL CARN CARP CARR CARS CART CASA CASE CASH CASK CAST CATE CATS CAUF CAUK CAUL CAUM CAUP CAVA CAVE CAVY CAWK CAWS CAYS CEAS CECA CEDE CEDI CEES CEIL CELL CELS CELT CENS CENT CEPE CEPS CERE CERO CERT CESS CETE CHAD CHAI CHAL CHAM CHAO CHAP CHAR CHAS CHAT CHAV CHAW CHAY CHEF CHER CHEW CHEZ CHIA CHIB CHIC CHID CHIK CHIN CHIP CHIS CHIT CHIV CHIZ CHOC CHOG CHON CHOP CHOU CHOW CHUB CHUG CHUM CHUR CHUT CIAO CIDE CIDS CIEL CIGS CILL CINE CION CIRE CIRL CIST CITE CITO CITS CITY CIVE CLAD CLAG CLAM CLAN CLAP CLAT CLAW CLAY CLEF CLEG CLEM CLEW CLIP CLIT CLOD CLOG CLON CLOP CLOT CLOU CLOW CLOY CLUB CLUE COAL COAT COAX COBB COBS COCA COCH COCK COCO CODA CODE CODS COED COFF COFT COGS COHO COIF COIL COIN COIR COIT COKE COKY COLA COLD COLE COLL COLS COLT COLY COMA COMB COME COMM COMP COMS COND CONE CONF CONI CONK CONN CONS CONY COOF COOK COOL COOM COON COOP COOS COOT COPE COPS COPY CORD CORE CORF CORK CORM CORN CORS CORY COSE COSH COSS COST COSY COTE COTH COTS COTT COUP COUR COVE COWK COWL COWP COWS COWY COXA COXY COYS COZE COZY CRAB CRAG CRAM CRAN CRAP CRAW CRAY CRED CREE CREM CREW CRIA CRIB CRIM CRIS CRIT CROC CROG CROP CROW CRUD CRUE CRUS CRUX CUBE CUBS CUDS CUED CUES CUFF CUIF CUIT CUKE CULL CULM CULT CUMS CUNT CUPS CURB CURD CURE CURF CURL CURN CURR CURS CURT CUSH CUSK CUSP CUSS CUTE CUTS CWMS CYAN CYMA CYME CYST CYTE CZAR
DAAL DABS DACE DACK DADA DADO DADS DAES DAFF DAFT DAGO DAGS DAHL DAHS DAIS DAKS DALE DALI DALS DALT DAME DAMN DAMP DAMS DANG DANK DANS DANT DAPS DARB DARE DARG DARI DARK DARN DART DASH DATA DATE DATO DAUB DAUD DAUR DAUT DAVY DAWD DAWK DAWN DAWS DAWT DAYS DAZE DEAD DEAF DEAL DEAN DEAR DEAW DEBE DEBS DEBT DECK DECO DEED DEEK DEEM DEEN DEEP DEER DEES DEET DEEV DEFI DEFO DEFT DEFY DEGS DEGU DEID DEIF DEIL DEKE DELE DELF DELI DELL DELO DELS DELT DEME DEMO DEMY DENE DENI DENS DENT DENY DERE DERM DERN DERO DERV DESI DESK DEUS DEVA DEVS DEWS DEWY DEXY DEYS DHAK DHAL DHOL DHOW DIAL DIBS DICE DICH DICK DICT DIDO DIDY DIEB DIED DIEL DIES DIET DIFF DIFS DIGS DIKA DIKE DILL DIME DIMP DIMS DINE DING DINK DINO DINS DINT DIOL DIPS DIPT DIRE DIRK DIRL DIRT DISA DISC DISH DISK DISS DITA DITE DITS DITT DITZ DIVA DIVE DIVI DIVO DIVS DIXI DIXY DIYA DJIN DOAB DOAT DOBS DOBY DOCK DOCO DOCS DODO DODS DOEK DOEN DOER DOES DOFF DOGE DOGS DOGY DOHS DOIT DOJO DOLE DOLL DOLS DOLT DOME DOMS DOMY DONA DONE DONG DONS DOOB DOOK DOOL DOOM DOON DOOR DOOS DOPA DOPE DOPS DOPY DORB DORE DORK DORM DORP DORR DORS DORT DORY DOSE DOSH DOSS DOST DOTE DOTH DOTS DOTY DOUC DOUK DOUM DOUN DOUP DOUR DOUT DOUX DOVE DOWD DOWF DOWL DOWN DOWP DOWS DOWT DOXY DOYS DOZE DOZY DRAB DRAC DRAD DRAG DRAM DRAP DRAT DRAW DRAY DREE DREG DREK DREW DREY DRIB DRIP DROP DROW DRUB DRUG DRUM DRYS DSOS DUAD DUAL DUAN DUAR DUBS DUCE DUCI DUCK DUCT DUDE DUDS DUED DUEL DUES DUET DUFF DUGS DUIT DUKA DUKE DULE DULL DULY DUMA DUMB DUMP DUNE DUNG DUNK DUNS DUNT DUOS DUPE DUPS DURA DURE DURN DURO DURR DUSH DUSK DUST DUTY DWAM DYAD DYED DYER DYES DYKE DYNE DZHO DZOS
EACH EALE EANS EARD EARL EARN EARS EASE EAST EASY EATH EATS EAUS EAUX EAVE EBBS EBON ECAD ECCE ECCO ECHE ECHO ECHT ECOD ECOS ECRU ECUS EDDO EDDY EDGE EDGY EDHS EDIT EECH EELS EELY EERY EEVN EFFS EFTS EGAD EGAL EGER EGGS EGGY EGIS EGMA EGOS EHED EIDE EIKS EILD EINA EINE EISH EKED EKES EKKA ELAN ELDS ELFS ELHI ELKS ELLS ELMS ELMY ELSE ELTS EMES EMEU EMIC EMIR EMIT EMMA EMMY EMOS EMPT EMUS EMYD EMYS ENDS ENES ENEW ENGS ENOL ENOW ENUF ENVY EOAN EONS EORL EPEE EPHA EPIC EPOS ERAS ERED ERES EREV ERGO ERGS ERHU ERIC ERKS ERNE ERNS EROS ERRS ERST ERUV ESES ESKY ESNE ESPY ESSE ESTS ETAS ETAT ETCH ETEN ETHE ETHS ETIC ETNA ETUI EUGE EUGH EUKS EUOI EURO EVEN EVER EVES EVET EVIL EVOE EVOS EWER EWES EWKS EWTS EXAM EXEC EXED EXES EXIT EXON EXPO EXUL EYAS EYED EYEN EYER EYES EYNE EYOT EYRA EYRE EYRY
FAAN FAAS FABS FACE FACT FADE FADO FADS FADY FAFF FAGS FAHS FAIK FAIL FAIN FAIR FAIX FAKE FALL FALX FAME FAND FANE FANG FANK FANO FANS FARD FARE FARL FARM FARO FARS FART FASH FAST FATE FATS FAUN FAUR FAUT FAUX FAVA FAVE FAWN FAWS FAYS FAZE FEAL FEAR FEAT FECK FEDS FEEB FEED FEEL FEEN FEER FEES FEET FEGS FEHM FEHS FEIS FELL FELT FEME FEMS FEND FENI FENS FENT FEOD FERE FERM FERN FESS FEST FETA FETE FETS FETT FEUD FEUS FEWS FEYS FIAR FIAT FIBS FICE FICO FIDO FIDS FIEF FIER FIFE FIGO FIGS FIKE FIKY FILA FILE FILL FILM FILO FILS FIND FINE FINI FINK FINO FINS FIQH FIRE FIRK FIRM FIRN FIRS FISC FISH FISK FIST FITS FITT FIVE FIXT FIZZ FLAB FLAG FLAK FLAM FLAN FLAP FLAT FLAW FLAX FLAY FLEA FLED FLEE FLEG FLEW FLEX FLEY FLIC FLIM FLIP FLIR FLIT FLIX FLOB FLOC FLOE FLOG FLOP FLOR FLOW FLOX FLUB FLUE FLUS FLUX FOAL FOAM FOBS FOCI FOEN FOES FOGS FOGY FOHN FOID FOIL FOIN FOLD FOLK FOND FONE FONS FONT FOOD FOOL FOOT FOPS FORA FORB FORD FORE FORK FORM FORT FOSS FOUD FOUL FOUR FOUS FOWL FOXY FOYS FOZY FRAB FRAE FRAG FRAP FRAS FRAT FRAU FRAY FREE FRET FRIB FRIG FRIS FRIT FRIZ FROE FROG FROM FROS FROW FRUG FUBS FUCI FUCK FUDS FUEL FUFF FUGS FUGU FUJI FULL FUME FUMS FUMY FUND FUNG FUNK FUNS FURL FURR FURS FURY FUSC FUSE FUSS FUST FUTZ FUZE FUZZ FYCE FYKE FYLE FYRD
GABS GABY GADE GADI GADS GAED GAEN GAES GAFF GAGA GAGE GAGS GAID GAIN GAIR GAIT GAJO GAKS GALA GALE GALL GALS GAMA GAMB GAME GAMP GAMS GAMY GANE GANG GANS GANT GAOL GAPE GAPO GAPS GAPY GARB GARE GARI GARS GART GASH GASP GAST GATE GATH GATS GAUD GAUM GAUN GAUP GAUR GAUS GAVE GAWD GAWK GAWP GAWS GAYS GAZE GAZY GEAL GEAN GEAR GEAT GECK GEDS GEED GEEK GEEP GEES GEEZ GEIT GELD GELS GELT GEMS GENA GENE GENS GENT GENU GEOS GERE GERM GERS GERT GEST GETA GETS GEUM GHAT GHEE GHIS GIBE GIBS GIDS GIED GIEN GIES GIFT GIGA GIGS GILA GILD GILL GILT GIMP GING GINK GINN GINS GIOS GIPS GIRD GIRL GIRN GIRO GIRR GIRT GISM GIST GITE GITS GIVE GIZZ GJUS GLAD GLAM GLED GLEE GLEG GLEI GLEN GLEY GLIA GLIB GLID GLIM GLIT GLOB GLOM GLOP GLOW GLUE GLUG GLUM GLUT GNAR GNAT GNAW GNOW GNUS GOAD GOAF GOAL GOAS GOAT GOBI GOBO GOBS GOBY GODS GOEL GOER GOES GOEY GOFF GOGO GOJI GOLD GOLE GOLF GOLP GONE GONG GONK GONS GOOD GOOF GOOG GOOK GOOL GOON GOOP GOOR GOOS GORA GORE GORI GORM GORP GORY GOSH GOSS GOTH GOUK GOUT GOVS GOWD GOWF GOWK GOWL GOWN GOYS GRAB GRAD GRAM GRAN GRAT GRAV GRAY GREE GREN GREW GREX GREY GRID GRIG GRIM GRIN GRIP GRIS GRIT GROG GROK GROT GROW GRRL GRUB GRUE GRUM GUAN GUAR GUBS GUCK GUDE GUES GUFF GUGA GUID GULA GULE GULF GULL GULP GULS GULY GUMP GUMS GUNG GUNK GUNS GUPS GURL GURN GURS GURU GUSH GUST GUTS GUVS GUYS GYAL GYBE GYMP GYMS GYNY GYPS GYRE GYRI GYRO GYTE GYVE
HAAF HAAR HABU HACK HADE HADJ HADS HAED HAEM HAEN HAES HAET HAFF HAFT HAGG HAGS HAHA HAHS HAIK HAIL HAIN HAIR HAJI HAJJ HAKA HAKE HAKU HALE HALF HALL HALM HALO HALT HAME HAMS HAND HANG HANK HANT HAOS HAPS HAPU HARD HARE HARK HARL HARM HARN HARO HARP HART HASH HASK HASP HASS HAST HATE HATH HATS HAUD HAUF HAUL HAUT HAVE HAWK HAWM HAWS HAYS HAZE HAZY HEAD HEAL HEAP HEAR HEAT HEBE HECH HECK HEED HEEL HEFT HEHS HEID HEIL HEIR HELD HELE HELL HELM HELO HELP HEME HEMP HEMS HEND HENS HENT HEPS HEPT HERB HERD HERE HERL HERM HERN HERO HERS HERY HESP HEST HETE HETH HETS HEWN HEWS HEYS HICK HIDE HIED HIES HIGH HIKE HILA HILD HILI HILL HILT HIMS HIND HING HINS HINT HIOI HIPS HIPT HIRE HISH HISN HISS HIST HITS HIVE HIYA HIZZ HOAR HOAS HOAX HOBO HOBS HOCK HODS HOED HOER HOES HOGG HOGH HOGS HOHA HOHS HOIK HOKA HOKE HOKI HOLD HOLE HOLK HOLM HOLP HOLS HOLT HOLY HOMA HOME HOMO HOMS HOMY HOND HONE HONG HONK HONS HOOD HOOF HOOK HOON HOOP HOOR HOOT HOPE HOPS HORA HORE HORI HORN HORS HOSE HOSS HOST HOTE HOTS HOUF HOUR HOUT HOVE HOWE HOWF HOWK HOWL HOWS HOYA HOYS HUBS HUCK HUED HUER HUES HUFF HUGE HUGS HUGY HUHU HUIA HUIC HUIS HULA HULE HULK HULL HUMA HUMF HUMP HUMS HUNG HUNH HUNK HUNS HUNT HUPS HURL HURT HUSH HUSK HUSO HUSS HUTS HWAN HWYL HYED HYEN HYES HYKE HYLA HYLE HYMN HYPE HYPO HYPS HYTE
IAMB IBEX IBIS ICED ICER ICES ICHS ICKY ICON IDEA IDEE IDEM IDES IDLE IDLY IDOL IDYL IFFY IGAD IGGS IGLU IKAN IKAT IKON ILEA ILEX ILIA ILKA ILKS ILLS ILLY IMAM IMID IMMY IMPI IMPS INBY INCH INFO INGO INGS INIA INKS INKY INLY INNS INRO INTI INTO IONS IOTA IRED IRES IRID IRIS IRKS IRON ISBA ISIT ISLE ISMS ISNA ISOS ITAS ITCH ITEM IURE IWIS IXIA IZAR
JAAP JABS JACK JADE JAFA JAGA JAGG JAGS JAIL JAKE JAKS JAMB JAMS JANE JANN JAPE JAPS JARK JARL JARP JARS JASP JASS JASY JATO JAUK JAUP JAVA JAWS JAXY JAYS JAZY JAZZ JEAN JEAT JEDI JEED JEEL JEEP JEER JEES JEEZ JEFE JEFF JEHU JELL JEON JERK JESS JEST JETE JETS JEUX JEWS JIAO JIBB JIBE JIBS JIFF JIGS JILL JILT JIMP JINK JINN JINS JINX JIRD JISM JIVE JIVY JIZZ JOBE JOBS JOCK JOCO JOES JOEY JOGS JOHN JOIN JOKE JOKY JOLE JOLL JOLS JOLT JOMO JONG JOOK JORS JOSH JOSS JOTA JOTS JOUK JOUR JOWL JOWS JOYS JUBA JUBE JUCO JUDO JUDS JUDY JUGA JUGS JUJU JUKE JUKU JUMP JUNK JUPE JURA JURE JURY JUST JUTE JUTS JUVE JYNX
KAAL KAAS KABS KACK KADE KADI KAED KAES KAFS KAGO KAGU KAID KAIE KAIF KAIK KAIL KAIM KAIN KAIS KAKA KAKI KAKS KALE KALI KAMA KAME KAMI KANA KANE KANG KANS KANT KAON KAPA KAPH KARA KARK KARN KARO KART KATA KATI KATS KAVA KAWA KAWS KAYO KAYS KAZI KBAR KEAS KEBS KECK KEDS KEEF KEEK KEEL KEEN KEEP KEET KEFS KEGS KEIR KEKS KELL KELP KELT KEMB KEMP KENO KENS KENT KEPI KEPS KEPT KERB KERF KERN KERO KESH KEST KETA KETE KETO KETS KEWL KEYS KHAF KHAN KHAT KHET KHIS KHOR KHUD KIBE KICK KIDS KIEF KIER KIEV KIFF KIFS KIKE KILD KILL KILN KILO KILP KILT KINA KIND KINE KING KINK KINO KINS KIPE KIPP KIPS KIRK KIRN KIRS KISH KISS KIST KITE KITH KITS KIVA KIWI KLAP KLIK KNAG KNAP KNAR KNEE KNEW KNIT KNOB KNOP KNOT KNOW KNUB KNUR KNUT KOAN KOAP KOAS KOBO KOBS KOEL KOFF KOHA KOHL KOIS KOJI KOKA KOLA KOLO KOND KONK KONS KOOK KOPH KOPS KORA KORE KORO KORS KORU KOSS KOTO KOWS KRAB KRIS KSAR KUDO KUDU KUEH KUES KUFI KUIA KUKU KULA KUNA KUNE KURI KURU KUTA KUTI KUTU KUZU KVAS KYAK KYAR KYAT KYBO KYES KYLE KYND KYNE KYPE KYTE KYUS
LABS LACE LACK LACS LACY LADE LADS LADY LAER LAGS LAHS LAIC LAID LAIK LAIN LAIR LAKE LAKH LAKY LALL LAMA LAMB LAME LAMP LAMS LANA LAND LANE LANG LANK LANT LANX LAPS LARD LARE LARI LARK LARN LARS LASE LASH LASS LAST LATE LATH LATI LATS LATU LAUD LAUF LAVA LAVE LAVS LAWK LAWN LAWS LAYS LAZE LAZO LAZY LEAD LEAF LEAK LEAL LEAM LEAN LEAP LEAR LEAS LEAT LECH LEED LEEK LEEP LEER LEES LEET LEFT LEGS LEHR LEIR LEIS LEKE LEKS LEKU LEME LEND LENG LENO LENS LENT LEPS LEPT LERE LERP LESS LEST LETS LEUD LEVA LEVE LEVO LEVY LEWD LEYS LEZZ LIAR LIAS LIBS LICE LICH LICK LIDO LIDS LIED LIEF LIEN LIER LIES LIEU LIFE LIFT LIGS LIKE LILL LILO LILT LILY LIMA LIMB LIME LIMN LIMO LIMP LIMY LIND LINE LING LINK LINN LINO LINS LINT LINY LION LIPA LIPE LIPO LIPS LIRA LIRE LIRI LIRK LISK LISP LIST LITE LITH LITS LITU LIVE LOAD LOAF LOAM LOAN LOBE LOBI LOBO LOBS LOCA LOCH LOCI LOCK LOCO LODE LODS LOFT LOGE LOGO LOGS LOGY LOID LOIN LOIR LOKE LOLL LOMA LOME LONE LONG LOOF LOOK LOOM LOON LOOP LOOR LOOS LOOT LOPE LOPS LORD LORE LORN LORY LOSE LOSH LOSS LOST LOTA LOTE LOTH LOTI LOTO LOTS LOUD LOUN LOUP LOUR LOUS LOUT LOVE LOWE LOWN LOWP LOWS LOWT LOYS LUAU LUBE LUCE LUCK LUDE LUDO LUDS LUES LUFF LUGE LUGS LUIT LUKE LULL LULU LUMA LUMP LUMS LUNA LUNE LUNG LUNK LUNT LUNY LURE LURK LURS LUSH LUSK LUST LUTE LUTZ LUVS LUXE LWEI LYAM LYCH LYES LYME LYMS LYNE LYNX LYRA LYRE LYSE LYTE
MAAR MAAS MABE MACE MACH MACK MACS MADE MADS MAES MAGE MAGG MAGI MAGS MAHA MAID MAIK MAIL MAIM MAIN MAIR MAKE MAKI MAKO MAKS MALA MALE MALI MALL MALM MALS MALT MAMA MAMS MANA MAND MANE MANG MANI MANO MANS MANY MAPS MARA MARC MARD MARE MARG MARK MARL MARM MARS MART MARY MASA MASE MASH MASK MASS MAST MASU MATE MATH MATS MATT MATY MAUD MAUL MAUN MAUT MAWK MAWN MAWR MAWS MAXI MAYA MAYO MAYS MAZE MAZY MEAD MEAL MEAN MEAT MECK MEDS MEED MEEK MEER MEES MEET MEFF MEGA MEGS MEIN MELA MELD MELL MELS MELT MEME MEMO MEMS MEND MENE MENG MENO MENT MENU MEOU MEOW MERC MERE MERI MERK MERL MESA MESE MESH MESS META METE METH METS MEUS MEVE MEWL MEWS MEZE MEZZ MHOS MIBS MICA MICE MICH MICK MICO MICS MIDI MIDS MIEN MIFF MIGG MIGS MIHA MIHI MIKE MILD MILE MILF MILK MILL MILO MILS MILT MIME MINA MIND MINE MING MINI MINK MINO MINT MINX MINY MIPS MIRE MIRI MIRK MIRO MIRS MIRV MIRY MISE MISO MISS MIST MITE MITT MITY MIXT MIXY MIZZ MNAS MOAI MOAN MOAS MOAT MOBE MOBS MOBY MOCH MOCK MOCS MODE MODI MODS MOER MOES MOFO MOGS MOHR MOIL MOIT MOJO MOKE MOKI MOKO MOLA MOLD MOLE MOLL MOLS MOLT MOLY MOME MOMI MOMS MONA MONG MONK MONO MONS MONY MOOD MOOI MOOK MOOL MOON MOOP MOOR MOOS MOOT MOPE MOPS MOPY MORA MORE MORN MORS MORT MOSE MOSH MOSK MOSS MOST MOTE MOTH MOTI MOTS MOTT MOTU MOUE MOUP MOUS MOVE MOWA MOWN MOWS MOXA MOYA MOYL MOYS MOZE MOZO MOZZ MUCH MUCK MUDS MUFF MUGG MUGS MUID MUIL MUIR MULE MULL MUMM MUMP MUMS MUMU MUNG MUNI MUNS MUNT MUON MURA MURE MURK MURL MURR MUSE MUSH MUSK MUSO MUSS MUST MUTE MUTI MUTS MUTT MUZZ MWAH MYAL MYCS MYNA MYTH MYXO MZEE
NAAM NAAN NABE NABK NABS NACH NADA NADS NAFF NAGA NAGS NAIF NAIK NAIL NAIN NALA NAME NAMS NAMU NANA NANE NANG NANS NAOI NAOS NAPA NAPE NAPS NARC NARD NARE NARK NARY NATS NAVE NAVY NAYS NAZE NAZI NEAL NEAP NEAR NEAT NEBS NECK NEDS NEED NEEM NEEP NEFS NEGS NEIF NEKS NEMA NEMN NENE NEON NEPS NERD NERK NESH NESS NEST NETE NETS NETT NEUK NEUM NEVE NEVI NEWS NEWT NEXT NGAI NIBS NICE NICK NIDE NIDI NIDS NIED NIEF NIES NIFE NIFF NIGH NILL NILS NIMB NIMS NINE NIPA NIPS NIRL NISH NISI NITE NITS NIXE NIXY NOAH NOBS NOCK NODE NODI NODS NOEL NOES NOGG NOGS NOIL NOIR NOLE NOLL NOLO NOMA NOME NOMS NONA NONE NONG NONI NOOB NOOK NOON NOOP NOPE NORI NORK NORM NOSE NOSH NOSY NOTA NOTE NOTT NOUL NOUN NOUP NOUS NOUT NOVA NOWL NOWN NOWS NOWT NOWY NOYS NUBS NUDE NUFF NUKE NULL NUMB NUNS NURD NURL NURR NURS NUTS NYAS NYED NYES
OAFS OAKS OAKY OARS OARY OAST OATH OATS OATY OBAS OBES OBEY OBIA OBIS OBIT OBOE OBOL OBOS OCAS OCCY OCHE OCTA ODAH ODAL ODAS ODDS ODEA ODES ODIC ODOR ODSO ODYL OFAY OFFS OFFY OGAM OGEE OGLE OGRE OHED OHIA OHMS OIKS OILS OILY OINK OINT OKAS OKAY OKEH OKES OKRA OKTA OLDE OLDS OLDY OLEA OLEO OLES OLID OLIO OLLA OLMS OLPE OMBU OMEN OMER OMIT OMOV ONCE ONER ONES ONIE ONLY ONOS ONST ONTO ONUS ONYX OOFS OOFY OOHS OOMS OONS OONT OOPS OOSE OOSY OOTS OOZE OOZY OPAH OPAL OPED OPEN OPES OPPO OPTS OPUS ORAD ORAL ORBS ORBY ORCA ORCS ORDO ORDS ORES ORFE ORFS ORGY ORLE ORRA ORTS ORYX ORZO OSAR OSES OSSA OTIC OTTO OUCH OUDS OUKS OULD OULK OUMA OUPA OUPH OUPS OURN OURS OUST OUTS OUZO OVAL OVEL OVEN OVER OVUM OWED OWER OWES OWLS OWLY OWNS OWRE OWSE OWTS OXEN OXER OXES OXID OXIM OYER OYES OYEZ PAAL
PAAN PACA PACE PACK PACO PACS PACT PACY PADI PADS PAGE PAHS PAID PAIK PAIL PAIN PAIR PAIS PALE PALL PALM PALP PALS PALY PAMS PAND PANE PANG PANS PANT PAPA PAPE PAPS PARA PARD PARE PARK PARP PARR PARS PART PASE PASH PASS PAST PATE PATH PATS PATU PATY PAUA PAUL PAVE PAVS PAWA PAWK PAWL PAWN PAWS PAYS PEAG PEAK PEAL PEAN PEAR PEAS PEAT PEBA PECH PECK PECS PEDS PEED PEEK PEEL PEEN PEEP PEER PEES PEGH PEGS PEHS PEIN PEKE PELA PELE PELF PELL PELS PELT PEND PENE PENI PENK PENS PENT PEON PEPO PEPS PERE PERI PERK PERM PERN PERP PERT PERV PESO PEST PETS PEWS PFFT PFUI PHAT PHEW PHIS PHIZ PHOH PHON PHOS PHOT PHUT PIAL PIAN PIAS PICA PICE PICK PICS PIED PIER PIES PIET PIGS PIKA PIKE PIKI PILA PILE PILI PILL PILY PIMA PIMP PINA PINE PING PINK PINS PINT PINY PION PIOY PIPA PIPE PIPI PIPS PIPY PIRL PIRN PIRS PISE PISH PISO PISS PITA PITH PITS PITY PIUM PIXY PIZE PLAN PLAP PLAT PLAY PLEA PLEB PLED PLEW PLEX PLIE PLIM PLOD PLOP PLOT PLOW PLOY PLUE PLUG PLUM PLUS POAS POCK POCO PODS POEM POEP POET POGO POGY POIS POKE POKY POLE POLK POLL POLO POLS POLT POLY POME POMO POMP POMS POND PONE PONG PONK PONS PONT PONY POOD POOF POOH POOK POOL POON POOP POOR POOS POOT POPE POPS PORE PORK PORN PORT PORY POSE POSH POSS POST POSY POTE POTS POTT POUF POUK POUR POUT POWN POWS POXY POZZ PRAD PRAM PRAO PRAT PRAU PRAY PREE PREM PREP PREX PREY PREZ PRIG PRIM PROA PROB PROD PROF PROG PROM PROO PROP PROS PROW PRUH PRYS PSIS PSST PTUI PUBE PUBS PUCE PUCK PUDS PUDU PUER PUFF PUGH PUGS PUHA PUIR PUJA PUKA PUKE PUKU PUKY PULA PULE PULI PULK PULL PULP PULS PULU PULY PUMA PUMP PUMY PUNA PUNG PUNK PUNS PUNT PUNY PUPA PUPS PUPU PURE PURI PURL PURR PURS PUSH PUSS PUTS PUTT PUTZ PUYS PYAS PYAT PYES PYET PYIC PYIN PYNE PYOT PYRE PYRO QADI
QAID QATS QINS QOPH QUAD QUAG QUAI QUAT QUAY QUEP QUEY QUID QUIM QUIN QUIP QUIT QUIZ QUOD QUOP
RABI RACA RACE RACH RACK RACY RADE RADS RAFF RAFT RAGA RAGE RAGG RAGI RAGS RAGU RAHS RAIA RAID RAIK RAIL RAIN RAIS RAIT RAJA RAKE RAKI RAKU RALE RAMI RAMP RAMS RANA RAND RANG RANI RANK RANT RAPE RAPS RAPT RARE RARK RASE RASH RASP RAST RATA RATE RATH RATO RATS RATU RAUN RAVE RAVS RAWN RAWS RAYA RAYS RAZE RAZZ READ REAK REAL REAM REAN REAP REAR REBS RECK RECS REDD REDE REDO REDS REED REEF REEK REEL REEN REES REFS REFT REGO REGS REHS REIF REIK REIN REIS REKE RELY REMS REND RENK RENS RENT RENY REOS REPO REPP REPS RESH REST RETE RETS REVS REWS RHEA RHOS RHUS RIAD RIAL RIAS RIBA RIBS RICE RICH RICK RICY RIDE RIDS RIEL RIEM RIFE RIFF RIFS RIFT RIGG RIGS RILE RILL RIMA RIME RIMS RIMU RIMY RIND RINE RING RINK RINS RIOT RIPE RIPP RIPS RIPT RISE RISK RISP RITE RITS RITT RITZ RIVA RIVE RIVO RIZA ROAD ROAM ROAN ROAR ROBE ROBS ROCH ROCK ROCS RODE RODS ROED ROES ROIL ROIN ROJI ROKE ROKS ROKY ROLE ROLF ROLL ROMA ROMP ROMS RONE RONG RONT RONZ ROOD ROOF ROOK ROOM ROON ROOP ROOS ROOT ROPE ROPY RORE RORT RORY ROSE ROST ROSY ROTA ROTE ROTI ROTL ROTO ROTS ROUE ROUL ROUM ROUP ROUT ROUX ROVE ROWS ROWT RUBE RUBS RUBY RUCK RUCS RUDD RUDE RUDS RUED RUER RUES RUFF RUGA RUGS RUIN RUKH RULE RULY RUME RUMP RUMS RUND RUNE RUNG RUNS RUNT RURP RURU RUSA RUSE RUSH RUSK RUST RUTH RUTS RYAL RYAS RYES RYFE RYKE RYND RYOT RYPE
SAAG SABE SABS SACK SACS SADE SADI SADO SADS SAFE SAFT SAGA SAGE SAGO SAGS SAGY SAIC SAID SAIL SAIM SAIN SAIR SAIS SAKE SAKI SALE SALL SALP SALS SALT SAMA SAME SAMP SAMS SAND SANE SANG SANK SANS SANT SAPS SARD SARI SARK SARS SASH SASS SATE SATI SAUL SAUT SAVE SAVS SAWN SAWS SAXE SAYS SCAB SCAD SCAG SCAM SCAN SCAR SCAT SCAW SCOG SCOP SCOT SCOW SCRY SCUD SCUG SCUL SCUM SCUP SCUR SCUT SCYE SEAL SEAM SEAN SEAR SEAS SEAT SECH SECO SECS SECT SEED SEEK SEEL SEEM SEEN SEEP SEER SEES SEGO SEGS SEIF SEIK SEIL SEIR SEIS SEKT SELD SELE SELF SELL SELS SEME SEMI SENA SEND SENE SENS SENT SEPS SEPT SERA SERE SERF SERK SERR SERS SESE SESH SESS SETA SETS SETT SEWN SEWS SEXT SEXY SEYS SHAD SHAG SHAH SHAM SHAN SHAT SHAW SHAY SHEA SHED SHES SHET SHEW SHIM SHIN SHIP SHIR SHIT SHIV SHMO SHOD SHOE SHOG SHOO SHOP SHOT SHOW SHRI SHUL SHUN SHUT SHWA SIAL SIBB SIBS SICE SICH SICK SICS SIDA SIDE SIDH SIEN SIES SIFT SIGH SIGN SIJO SIKA SIKE SILD SILE SILK SILL SILO SILT SIMA SIMI SIMP SIMS SIND SINE SING SINH SINK SINS SIPE SIPS SIRE SIRI SIRS SISS SIST SITE SITH SITS SITZ SIZE SIZY SJOE SKAG SKAS SKAT SKAW SKEE SKEG SKEN SKEO SKEP SKER SKET SKEW SKID SKIM SKIN SKIO SKIP SKIS SKIT SKOL SKRY SKUA SKUG SKYF SKYR SLAB SLAE SLAG SLAM SLAP SLAT SLAW SLAY SLEB SLED SLEE SLEW SLEY SLID SLIM SLIP SLIT SLOB SLOE SLOG SLOP SLOT SLOW SLUB SLUE SLUG SLUM SLUR SLUT SMEE SMEW SMIR SMIT SMOG SMUG SMUR SMUT SNAB SNAG SNAP SNAR SNAW SNEB SNED SNEE SNIB SNIG SNIP SNIT SNOB SNOD SNOG SNOT SNOW SNUB SNUG SNYE SOAK SOAP SOAR SOBA SOBS SOCA SOCK SOCS SODA SODS SOFA SOFT SOGS SOHO SOHS SOIL SOJA SOKE SOLA SOLD SOLE SOLI SOLO SOLS SOMA SOME SOMS SOMY SONE SONG SONS SOOK SOOL SOOM SOON SOOP SOOT SOPH SOPS SORA SORB SORD SORE SORI SORN SORT SOSS SOTH SOTS SOUK SOUL SOUM SOUP SOUR SOUS SOUT SOVS SOWF SOWL SOWM SOWN SOWP SOWS SOYA SOYS SPAE SPAG SPAM SPAN SPAR SPAS SPAT SPAW SPAY SPAZ SPEC SPED SPEK SPET SPEW SPIC SPIE SPIF SPIK SPIM SPIN SPIT SPIV SPOD SPOT SPRY SPUD SPUE SPUG SPUN SPUR SRIS STAB STAG STAP STAR STAT STAW STAY STED STEM STEN STEP STET STEW STEY STIE STIM STIR STOA STOB STOP STOT STOW STUB STUD STUM STUN STYE SUBA SUBS SUCH SUCK SUDD SUDS SUED SUER SUES SUET SUGH SUGO SUGS SUID SUIT SUKH SUKS SULK SULU SUMO SUMP SUMS SUMY SUNG SUNI SUNK SUNN SUNS SUPE SUPS SUQS SURA SURD SURE SURF SUSS SUSU SWAB SWAD SWAG SWAM SWAN SWAP SWAT SWAY SWEE SWEY SWIG SWIM SWIZ SWOB SWOP SWOT SWUM SYBO SYCE SYED SYEN SYES SYKE SYLI SYNC SYND SYNE SYPE SYPH
TAAL TABI TABS TABU TACE TACH TACK TACO TACT TADS TAED TAEL TAES TAGS TAHA TAHR TAIG TAIL TAIN TAIS TAIT TAKA TAKE TAKI TAKS TAKY TALA TALC TALE TALI TALK TALL TAME TAMP TAMS TANA TANE TANG TANH TANK TANS TAOS TAPA TAPE TAPS TAPU TARA TARE TARN TARO TARP TARS TART TASH TASK TASS TATE TATH TATS TATT TATU TAUS TAUT TAVA TAVS TAWA TAWS TAWT TAXA TAXI TAYS TEAD TEAK TEAL TEAM TEAR TEAS TEAT TECH TECS TEDS TEDY TEED TEEK TEEL TEEM TEEN TEER TEES TEFF TEFS TEGG TEGS TEGU TEHR TEIL TEIN TELA TELD TELE TELL TELS TELT TEME TEMP TEMS TEND TENE TENS TENT TEPA TERF TERM TERN TEST TETE TETH TETS TEWS TEXT THAE THAN THAR THAT THAW THEE THEM THEN THEW THEY THIG THIN THIO THIR THIS THON THOU THRO THRU THUD THUG THUS TIAN TIAR TICE TICH TICK TICS TIDE TIDS TIDY TIED TIER TIES TIFF TIFT TIGE TIGS TIKA TIKE TIKI TIKS TILE TILL TILS TILT TIME TINA TIND TINE TING TINK TINS TINT TINY TIPI TIPS TIPT TIRE TIRL TIRO TIRR TITE TITI TITS TIVY TIZZ TOAD TOBY TOCK TOCO TOCS TODS TODY TOEA TOED TOES TOEY TOFF TOFT TOFU TOGA TOGE TOGS TOHO TOIL TOIT TOKE TOKO TOLA TOLD TOLE TOLL TOLT TOLU TOMB TOME TOMO TOMS TONE TONG TONK TONS TONY TOOK TOOL TOOM TOON TOOT TOPE TOPH TOPI TOPO TOPS TORA TORC TORE TORI TORN TORO TORR TORS TORT TORY TOSA TOSE TOSH TOSS TOST TOTE TOTS TOUK TOUN TOUR TOUT TOWN TOWS TOWT TOWY TOYO TOYS TOZE TRAD TRAM TRAP TRAT TRAY TREE TREF TREK TRES TRET TREW TREY TREZ TRIE TRIG TRIM TRIN TRIO TRIP TROD TROG TRON TROP TROT TROW TROY TRUE TRUG TRYE TRYP TSAR TSKS TUAN TUBA TUBE TUBS TUCK TUFA TUFF TUFT TUGS TUIS TULE TUMP TUMS TUNA TUND TUNE TUNG TUNS TUNY TUPS TURD TURF TURK TURM TURN TUSH TUSK TUTS TUTU TUZZ TWAE TWAL TWAS TWAT TWAY TWEE TWIG TWIN TWIT TWOS TYDE TYED TYEE TYER TYES TYGS TYIN TYKE TYMP TYND TYNE TYPE TYPO TYPP TYPY TYRE TYRO TYTE TZAR
UDAL UDON UDOS UEYS UFOS UGHS UGLY UKES ULAN ULES ULEX ULNA ULUS ULVA UMBO UMMA UMPH UMPS UMPY UMRA UMUS UNAI UNAU UNBE UNCE UNCI UNCO UNDE UNDO UNDY UNIS UNIT UNTO UPAS UPBY UPDO UPGO UPON UPSY UPTA URAO URBS URDE URDS URDY UREA URES URGE URIC URNS URPS URSA URUS URVA USED USER USES UTAS UTES UTIS UTUS UVAE UVAS UVEA
VACS VADE VAES VAGI VAGS VAIL VAIN VAIR VALE VALI VAMP VANE VANG VANS VANT VARA VARE VARS VARY VASA VASE VAST VATS VATU VAUS VAUT VAVS VAWS VEAL VEEP VEER VEES VEGA VEGO VEHM VEIL VEIN VELA VELD VELE VELL VENA VEND VENT VERA VERB VERD VERS VERT VERY VEST VETO VETS VEXT VIAE VIAL VIAS VIBE VIBS VICE VIDE VIDS VIED VIER VIES VIEW VIGA VIGS VILD VILE VILL VIMS VINA VINE VINO VINS VINT VINY VIOL VIRE VIRL VISA VISE VITA VITE VIVA VIVE VIVO VIZY VLEI VLOG VOAR VOES VOID VOIP VOLA VOLE VOLK VOLS VOLT VORS VOTE VOWS VRIL VROT VROU VROW VUGG VUGH VUGS VULN VUMS
WAAC WABS WACK WADD WADE WADI WADS WADT WADY WAES WAFF WAFT WAGE WAGS WAID WAIF WAIL WAIN WAIR WAIS WAIT WAKA WAKE WAKF WALD WALE WALI WALK WALL WALY WAME WAND WANE WANG WANK WANS WANT WANY WAPS WAQF WARB WARD WARE WARK WARM WARN WARP WARS WART WARY WASE WASH WASP WAST WATE WATS WATT WAUK WAUL WAUR WAVE WAVY WAWA WAWE WAWL WAWS WAXY WAYS WEAK WEAL WEAN WEAR WEBS WEDS WEED WEEK WEEL WEEM WEEN WEEP WEER WEES WEET WEFT WEID WEIL WEIR WEKA WELD WELK WELL WELS WELT WEMB WEMS WENA WEND WENS WENT WEPT WERE WERO WERT WEST WETA WETS WEXE WEYS WHAE WHAM WHAP WHAT WHEE WHEN WHET WHEW WHEY WHID WHIG WHIM WHIN WHIO WHIP WHIR WHIT WHIZ WHOA WHOM WHOP WHOT WHOW WHUP WHYS WICE WICH WICK WIDE WIEL WIFE WIGS WIKI WILD WILE WILI WILL WILT WILY WIMP WIND WINE WING WINK WINN WINO WINS WINY WIPE WIRE WIRY WISE WISH WISP WISS WIST WITE WITH WITS WIVE WOAD WOCK WOES WOFS WOGS WOKE WOKS WOLD WOLF WOMB WONK WONS WONT WOOD WOOF WOOL WOON WOOS WOOT WOPS WORD WORE WORK WORM WORN WORT WOST WOTS WOVE WOWF WOWS WRAP WREN WRIT WUDS WUDU WULL WUSS WYCH WYES WYLE WYND WYNN WYNS WYTE
XRAY XYST
YAAR YABA YACK YADS YAFF YAGI YAGS YAHS YAKS YALD YALE YAMS YANG YANK YAPP YAPS YARD YARE YARK YARN YARR YATE YAUD YAUP YAWL YAWN YAWP YAWS YAWY YAYS YBET YEAD YEAH YEAN YEAR YEAS YEBO YECH YEDE YEED YEGG YELD YELK YELL YELM YELP YELT YENS YEPS YERD YERK YESK YEST YETI YETT YEUK YEVE YEWS YGOE YIDS YIKE YILL YINS YIPE YIPS YIRD YIRK YIRR YITE YLEM YLKE YMPE YMPT YOBS YOCK YODE YODH YODS YOGA YOGH YOGI YOKE YOKS YOLD YOLK YOMP YOND YONI YONT YOOF YOOP YORE YORK YORP YOUK YOUR YOUS YOWE YOWL YOWS YUAN YUCA YUCH YUCK YUFT YUGA YUGS YUKE YUKO YUKS YUKY YULE YUMP YUNX YUPS YURT YUTZ YUZU YWIS
ZACK ZAGS ZANY ZAPS ZARF ZARI ZATI ZEAL ZEAS ZEBU ZEDS ZEES ZEIN ZEKS ZELS ZEPS ZERK ZERO ZEST ZETA ZEZE ZHOS ZIFF ZIGS ZILA ZILL ZIMB ZINC ZINE ZING ZINS ZIPS ZITE ZITI ZITS ZIZZ ZOBO ZOBU ZOEA ZOIC ZOLS ZONA ZONE ZONK ZOOM ZOON ZOOS ZOOT ZORI ZOUK ZULU ZUPA ZURF ZYGA ZYME ZZZS
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2020.08.03 10:26 CuteBananaMuffin Egypt Kings Lists

Egypt Kings Lists
from AncientEgypt Website

The Turin Kinglist, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is a unique papyrus, written in hieratic, currently in the Egyptian Museum at Turin, to which it owes its modern name.
It is broken into over 160 often very small fragments, many of which have been lost.
When it was discovered in the Theban necropolis by the Italian traveller Bernardino Drovetti in 1822, it seems to have been largely intact, but by the time it became part of the collection of the Egyptian Museum in Turin, its condition had severely deteriorated.


https://preview.redd.it/4t707u5rzqe51.jpg?width=350&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=48d870575cbc2d42b9f2c75780257c96c85e413b
https://preview.redd.it/ertpts5rzqe51.jpg?width=350&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=bdfbf7c9852e765e4bb905f05a90e2402274032f
The importance of this papyrus was first recognized by the French Egyptologist Jean-François Champollion, who, later followed by Gustavus Seyffarth took up its reconstruction and restoration.
Although they succeeded in placing most of the fragments in the correct order, the diligent intervention of these two men came too late and many lacunae to thus important papyrus still remain.
Written during the long reign of Ramesses II, the papyrus, now estimated at 1.7m long and 0.41m high, comprises on the recto an unknown number of pages that hold a list of names of persons and institutions, along with what appears to be the tax-assessment of each.
It is, however, the verso of the papyrus that has attracted the most attention, as it contains a list of gods, demi-gods, spirits, mythical and human kings who ruled Egypt from the beginning of time presumably until the composition of this valuable document.
The beginning and ending of the list are now lost, which means that we are missing both the introduction of the list - if ever there was such an introduction - and the enumeration of the kings following the 17th Dynasty.
We therefore do not know for certain when after the composition of the tax-list on the recto an unknown scribe used the verso to write down this list of kings. This may have occurred during the reign of Ramesses II, but a date as late as the 20th Dynasty can not be excluded.
The fact that the list was scribbled on the back of an older papyrus has been seen by some as an indication that it was of no great importance to the writer. Perhaps it was a text that needed to be copied in a scribes' school by way of exercise?
We are also left in the dark as to what source or sources our laborious scribe used to write down the list.
Did he simply copy an already existing papyrus? And if so, for what reason? And what has happened to the original? How was that compiled? Or did the scribe, probably having access to the archives of the temples, compile the list himself, using ancient tax-notes, decrees and documents?
The latter possibility seems the less likely and would infer that the Turin Kinglist is indeed a unique document.
There are several other lists that enumerate the predecessors of a king, such as the lists in the temples of Seti I and Ramesses II at Abydos -to name but two-, so what makes the Turin Kinglist so exceptional?
The other lists, although very valuable for the study of Ancient Egyptian chronology as well, are nothing more than an enumeration of some of the "ancestors" of the current king.
Often the current king, or one of his contemporaries, is seen in adoration before the cartouches or representations of the king’s "ancestors".
The current king is in fact represented as the good heir who pays respect to his long line of "ancestors". The word "ancestor" can not be taken literally, as the current king was in no way a descendant of most of his predecessors.
Such lists had a more cultic and political reason for being, for indeed they confirmed that the current king was the rightful heir of the kings that had ruled Egypt for many centuries.
These cultic lists are more a subjective choice of predecessors than an actual enumeration of all kings:
they will in most cases include kings such as Menes and Mentuhotep II, for they have played a pivotal role in the history of Ancient Egypt.
Other, less important kings, usurpers or kings that were considered to be illegitimate, such as the kings connected to the Amarna-revolution, were omitted from the lists.
The Turin Kinglist, on the other hand, does a lot more than simply list some kings: it groups them together and it mentions the duration of their reigns. What’s more, it even takes note of some kings that are omitted from the cultic lists, such as the otherwise quite unpopular Hyksos!
Despite the fact that it begins with an enumeration of gods, demi-gods, spirits and mythical that were supposed to have ruled Egypt before the reign of Menes, it was not a cultic list and it does not serve the purpose of showing the current king as the good heir to his "ancestors".
The king list of the Turin Kinglist was originally divided over an unknown number of columns or sheets, of which only 11 remain. Columns I to V comprised 25 or 26 lines of text, column VI at least 27 and columns IX and X at least 30.
The increasing number of lines as the Canon reaches its end seems to indicate that the scribe realized that he would not have sufficient space on his papyrus to write down all the royal names known to him in 25- or 26-line columns.
Most lines give the name of a particular king, written in a cartouche, followed by the number of years he ruled, and in some cases even by the number of months and days. The number of years credited to some kings of the 1st and 2nd Dynasty is so high, that, in those particular cases, they are most likely not correct.
It has sometimes been postulated that this high number of years does not reflect the length of a reign but the age at which the king died.
Although this possibility can not entirely be overruled, it is strange that the writer should choose to note the age of a king in one case and the length of his reign in another. I would rather suspect that the scribe mistook the year-labels of early kings as representations of different years, whereas it is likely that several labels actually referred to the same year..
For the kings of the first three dynasties, a name is written in a cartouche as well, despite the fact that cartouche-names were not used prior to the rule of the last king of the 3rd Dynasty, Huni.
The cartouche-name used for these kings is often similar to the names used for the same kings in the cultic king-lists, but they are quite different from the Horus-name by which they were known officially during their reign.
The relationship between the Horus-names of these early kings and the names used in the Turin Kinglist is not certain: for the later 1st Dynasty kings, the name in the kinglists seems to be based on their Nebti-name, but how the earlier kings of the 1st Dynasty and all kings of the 2nd and 3rd Dynasties got their names is not known.
The kings are grouped together logically based on the city where they took up residence. These groups do not (entirely) correspond to the dynasties into which the kings were placed by Manetho.
This indicates that the notion of dynasties was not present or fully developed before the 19th or 20th Dynasty.
Most groups comprise a line of summation that totals the number of years that this particular group has ruled. These summations are sometimes written on 1 line, sometimes divided over 2 lines and sometimes written in 1 line that is so long that it encroaches the next column. In some cases a group is introduced by a heading.
The fact that there are far less headings than summations may rather be the result of the fragmentary state of the Canon than an inconsistency on the part of the scribe who wrote or copied the list.
Despite its incomplete and fragmentary nature, and despite the fact that the placing of the fragments has been contested from time to time, the Turin Kinglist is one of our most important sources of knowledge about the chronology of Egypt between the 1st and 17th Dynasty.
The following pages contain a hieroglyphic transcription of that part of the Turin Kinglist that lists actual kings. The transcription has been based on the publication of the Turin Kinglist by Alan H. Gardiner. Although a rather old publication (the first edition is dated to the late 50's), the placement of the different fragments as proposed by Gardiner is still largely accepted by most Egyptologists.
Since his publication, other fragments seem to have been placed as well.
This will not yet be reflected in my current transcription of the Canon.
When making this hieroglyphic transcription, I have tried to respect the disposition of the signs as much as possible, except that I have oriented the signs from left to right for practical reasons, instead of from right to left as they were written in the original hieratic text.
The translations are written in italics and are my own. Words in the translation that are written in red were written in red ink in the original text as well.
Translations between [ ] are restorations of smaller lacunae. Where a restoration of a lacuna was not possible or uncertain, the signs /// will appear.
If the need arises to make some additional remarks about a particular line of text, this will be done using a smaller font.
A total of 16 "groups" can be distinguished (clicking on the links below will take you to a hieroglyphic transcription and a translation of that particular group):

Contents I,x - I,21: Ptah and the Great Ennead I,22 - II,3 : Horus and the Lesser Ennead (?) II,4 - II,8 : the spirits II,9 : a mythical group of kings II,10 : another group of mythical kings (?) II,11 - III,26/27: 1st to 5th Dynasty IV,1 - IV,14/15: 6th to 8th (?) Dynasty IV,15/17: 1st to 6th (or 8th ?) Dynasty IV,18 - V,10: 9th and 10th Dynasty V,11 - V,18: 11th Dynasty V,19 - VI,3: 12th Dynasty VI,4 - X,12/13: 13th and 14th Dynasty X,14 - X,21: 15th Dynasty (Hyksos) X,22, X,30 (?): a group of non-identified kings XI,1 (?) - XI,15: a group of probably Theban kings contemporary with the Hyksos (17th Dynasty ?) unplaced fragments
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2020.02.29 19:02 Stones02 Present Day Feminism Delimma: a malevolent shenanigan

On a wet September morning when vultures hate themselves, she tapped him softly “Brown, its 6:30am, the kids would be late for school…” Like a lost child in the forest, unworried of strange roads and unafraid of twilight, he bathed and dressed the kids and prepared them breakfast in the clutches of tolerance while Aisha tidy her make-ups as they both prepare to go to work. It’s his turn afterwards; she dressed the kids and drove them to school yesterday! The vague ache of memories interspersed space and time, Brown keeps ingesting forced pains like white corpuscles suffering the radiating pain in silence with cosmic intensity of catastrophe. “Pay the water and electricity bills, the rent also; it’s your turn!” he told her. The amplitude of sentiments and new magnitude of thoughts that betrays the lustre of love have taken over their family. Looking hopelessly with eyes that can distill at an instance while breathing hygienic blast of justice, acute as a glittering nerve she had to succumb… She’s a feminist!
Feminism is now a global trend, a social theory that argues for equality (not equity) of sexes in all aspects of public and private life! The antecedent for this social movement emanate from the fact that women from history were confined to the domestic sphere, restricted from economic, political, academic and some cultural engagements by virtue of their biological differences with the male counterparts. In addition, women were considered as unimportant, weak and naïve. Swiss born French Philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau for example portrayed women as silly and frivolous creatures born to subordinate and be source of pleasure to men. In some parts of Germany until late 20th century, a husband reserves the right to sale his wife. Women then could not exercise control over their own children without the permission of their husbands and were barred from most professions. This barbaric circumscribed status of women formed the basement inertia for the movement for women rights.
Essentially, feminism by denotation seeks to end this menace against women which have predisposed a great majority to rape, domestic violence, and psychological trauma amongst other terrible humiliations. Idle and sensible feminism is an idea that should benefit both sexes and is something anyone with any sense should embrace given its utility in balancing the society. One would therefore wonder why feminism is still considered a debacle encroaching our religious/societal values if at all we honestly want to maintain sanity in the society.
The concepts of present day feminism may look attractive to most people until its assumptions have been fully understood! This is because the “word and acts do not tally”. Unlike olden day feminist, modern day feminist center their attack against patriarchy and masculinity. Pro feminist women hate everything feminine instead they encourage women to become more masculine which in their own words is very toxic. These very radical feminists insist that our culture is best characterized as an oppressive tyrannical patriarchy. If something is toxic about masculinity, then as women adopt more and more masculine roles traditionally how can that toxicity go away? This concept is a very toxic and appalling sociological doctrine with extreme negative psychological consequences. Frankly, present day feminist are just a group of vehement and outspoken individuals who are looking beyond the traditional equality.
Early days feminism concepts like “women would be the intellectual equals of men if they were given equal opportunities, biological differences between sexes should not be a parameter for societal discrimination amongst others have been universally accepted and incorporated into the society. The fight for girl child education, freedom from sexual harassment, domestic violence, political and economic participation has attained a good success. As a matter of fact, nations have incorporated this into their constitutions, government parastatals and agencies such as Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development, National Council of Women Societies, Women Empowerment Schemes etc have been specially created to this end. The United Nations have a stern grip for women rights.
The penalty for mistreating a woman ranges from life imprisonment to death by hanging. Hundred thousands of men have served death sentences or life imprisonments for violating women’s right even on seemingly trivial things as inflammatory remarks against women. In July 2019, Senator E. Abbo representing Adamawa North was arraigned and faced suspension by the upper chamber disciplinary committee for allegedly ‘slapping’ a woman during a heated argument long before he became senator. Some women even exploit this to such extent that many men have served serious prison sentences for false accusations.
Today we have women as presidents and governors in many countries/states; they served at various capacities in ministries and other government agencies. They have every economic and political freedom; we have them as CEOs and MDs of many organizations. Academically, there is no exception, women/girls have equal access to education as much as do males in most part of the world while in remote areas like the core north, it is gradually been appreciated as more people become enlightened. Most feminist would say “feminism is not against men, it is fighting for equality.. we are only asking for equality bla bla bla etc…” NO! it is against men because what feminist are saying is that “despite the strict laws that ban discrimination of gender, that we still don’t have equality because of men…” twist it the way you want, the fact remains this “Feminism today is not asking for equality. What they do at best is to fight against masculinity and patriarchy and a selfish desire by women to subtly assume more masculine roles. Any sensible woman would dissociate herself from this unwholesome mindset.
With this, it provokes the question ‘what exactly is the fulcrum of this fourth wave feminism? What is their central goal? The fact that this fourth wave feminism (unlike the former 3 revolutions) is heavily criticized gives us a glimpse of a hidden shenanigan of her promoters.
Let us give a cursory gaze at some of their agenda/theories:
  1. Their purported quest for gender equality in all aspects of private and public life: looks cool right? Well, not too quickly. Firstly, equality in itself can be logically inconsistent, lacks empirical adequacy and is often experimentally irrelevant in many spheres of life. Are men and women truly equal in all aspects? The answer is crystal clear like the Biblical mene mene teke l upharsin, it is visible to the blind and audible to the deaf. The fact that nature itself has created the first biological barrier speaks a lot. This does not mean to create superiority or inferiority of gender but unique peculiarities. The quest for gender equality in all aspects is a very dicey proposition intended to plague our societal values with great impudence. A woman’s response to emotional stimuli for instance has been proven almost consistently to be different compared to how a man would respond to the same stimuli of equal intensity. Though this article is not intended to discuss the neural basis for this disparity, it is worthy of mention that the prevalence of disorders thought to involve emotion dysregulation between gender is obvious. Equality can never apply to all aspects of life, and no two humans are equal to begin with. Everyone is unique in their own separate ways, everyone has equal indispensable value. Equality in strict terms can also mean injustice; it is like giving N2000 to Musa who is in need of food and N2000 to Sani who wants to buy sunglasses or asking the super falcons best 11 to play against super eagles best 11 etc. it just doesn’t make sense! Everyone is unique in their domain. How about equity/equalism? Equity is impartial, and recognizes uniqueness of individuals and situations; it focuses on values and emphasizes efficiency in domesticity. It is the perfect balance. Sadly, present day feminist are not after equity, it is clear in their definition and their actions. It would have been better if feminist were asking that female privileges should be reviewed and increased especially in societies where women are still treated as subordinates to some degree.
  2. The society gave men their “superiority card”: This holds only in the dark ages when women were restrictive. In this present day of enlightenment, women have equal opportunities to compete with men in nearly all areas of life ranging from economic, political and educational spheres. The societal stereotypes regarding women have been gradually eliminated and only few cultural beliefs hold. These same societal stereotypes also place the male child on high tensions to meet the expectations placed. Nowadays, respect in the society is earned and not given. The society respect women who have attained certain cadres of life and disrespect men who haven’t. How exactly then have the society given men the alleged superiority cards? Only women with zero.. oh no, I mean negative percent of self-esteem depends on the society to make them feel their worth. You don’t need nobody to make you feel useful or useless, you work it out.
Aisha M. published an article on Medium titled “ A Muslimah Feminist” in which she said “I dare say the peddlers of this mischief do not care about Islam and the damage they claim feminism does to societal values, they’re only interested in silencing the movement and maintaining the status of male privilege and dominance at the extent expense of female libration and freedom. If not what have they done to restore the sanity to the society ….?”
I earnestly feel no one is against feminism if it maintains its denotation and embrace equity other than equality which is not logical. Vast majority of the society don’t have problem with sensible feminism but only frowns at deliberate attempts by modern feminist whose target is to destroy society’s intricate social fabric by their crude anti cultural and anti-religious ideologies. Pro feminist claims they are fighting for equality of gender but in truth direct their fight technically against patriarchy/masculinity while trying to assume themselves masculine roles. Black men were terribly molested by white women in those days and no feminist have or are talking about that. Men are also sexually abused and economically exploited and no feminist is talking about that too. Those who concentrate on the equality theory and not equity are already breaking homes and decent relationships. This is why present day feminism is not readily accepted.
Regarding Islam, I don’t have much to tell you, it is religious thing and I’m not too concerned about that. Religious stuffs are far too extensive that people have to choose to accept it the way it is or simply reject them. If religion has defined boundaries for certain genders, then it is binding on you as long as you sustain that faith. If you deem male are given dominance at the expense of female liberations, you can seek for explanations from the anchors of your faith.
I’m sorry to hear you say that nothing has been done to curb the injustice against women. This is certainly not true, not even in the era of political ferment. Men and women throughout history have fundamentally cooperated in the fight against the absolute catastrophe of existence including all forms of injustice against women. Today, there are well structured regulations protecting women in every aspect of life in the society. The government at all levels; religious and traditional leaders are all sensitized to appropriately defend you when you feel anyone is infringing on your right especially because you are woman. Cases of domestic violence or rape are never taken lightly whenever they are reported. The problem with our society today is lack of knowledge about fundamental rights.
To say that the fundamental relationship that exist between men and women throughout history is that of power - essentially slavery and that men took the upper hand and persecuted women in a tyrannical patriarchy (and so women should stand and fight in guise) is an absolute fallacy and misreading of history, a pernicious and dangerous thing to teach a young woman and a very horrible thing to inflict on men. Men have fundamentally cooperated in the fight for female dignity and values. This very sarcastic misconception is what formed the foundation of present day feminism. Believe it if you want, but be rest assured that it wouldn’t do any good to your relationship or family. We are better off when we embrace our uniqueness and contribute towards building a better society. I do hope we come to have mutual respect for one another not provoking the sense of superiority or inferiority of gender.
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2020.01.27 17:51 MWFD Opinion: WWE commentary would be 10X better if every soundbite wasn't 100% bullshit...

Long post so I'll just TL;DR it off the bat - commentators/announcers almost always speak in lies and knowingly spew bullshit (Wrestler X is too hurt and has no chance to win, Event Z will change the course of WWE as we know it, Wrestler Y will never be the same after this match). The end result is announcers with no integrity whom audiences don't trust (nor like) and it brings the product down.
Begin rant...
It's been a while since I watched a WWE show, but one thing that stood out last night - between watching the latest Royal Rumble and WWE 24 on WrestleMania 35 - were the amount of soundbites that left me saying, "This is so egregiously false; it just insults my intelligence." I can't NOT roll my eyes. The comments were so obviously false and just poor, I couldn't help but get distracted by them. Most comments were from Cole, though let's remember he's getting most of his shit spoon-fed to him by VKM.
Obviously, the entire business is a work and based on a lie so some people might argue, "How can you promote a lie without lying yourself?" And to that I say, plenty of ways. It's called having a brain and being fucking creative:
Years of watching WWE has conditioned me to think the exact opposite of whatever the announcers are saying. Why doesn't VKM (or anyone with influence) realize that and use it to their advantage to make a more compelling product? Times have changed. Change with them. WWE isn't supposed to require a doctorate to follow, but does it always have to be so god damn insulting that those with a doctorate can't watch?
End rant. I don't have a doctorate.
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2020.01.12 18:06 PannonianNephthys After reading TLW and SOD for the 1st time, here's what I think about all this

Tl;dr: loved the books
Oof... Where do I begin?
Nothing is perfect but when you love something, you will forgive and forget.
That's what I conclude regarding the books. They are impressively just writing themselves, and at one moment I thought how sacred it is to us when stories get so complex and rich that even if you wanted to nitpick, you would have a hard time. The author seems like a vessel to something that had to be told and to have that ability, one had to be born and raised grooming it. I used to write when I was younger but I started twisting that inner inspiration and the uglier and unnatural those stories got, the more I started distancing myself.
We may never know the truth of his writing, even if he gave it out in the interviews, but from the interviews alone, seems like he just lets it form itself. And that's pretty amazing!
Now onto the content... When it comes to the translation, I feel lucky to be born in a country that managed to capture some of that prime magic. Croatian and Polish may share the grammar more than English and Polish, but I'm aware some puns or jokes would lack proper context. (If there's an extensive list of those, sign me up)
The start is a bit rocky, I had to get used to how the message was going to be carried through. Descriptions of brawls and swords clashing tends to be tedious, especially if you're not familiar with certain words. And when you're rushing through the event, the need to look up the meaning is at the bottom of your priorities.
Then, the dialogues at the start are also abundant, rather one-sided, so Geralt remains a mysterious elephant in the room. But then it pays off in moments when he comes through (for example, in the Nivellen story and with Yennefer in their first encounter). We're given so little of his inner struggle but then SoD goes full struggle. I loved that so much, especially because it's portraying him so dubiously human - it's dark and depressing. The topic of humanity is my weak spot here. And when he says to Yen that someone didn't do their job properly [in making him a monster], it broke my heart.
And then the topic of destiny. That one gets me too. Not because I believe everything is predetermined (from who we are and what we do stems our whole life) but it truly speaks more of our actions and how all our choices count. Retroactively. (:D) There's destiny and there's our agency that will make of it one thing or the other. There's still some leeway and a lot of dilemmas regarding the right path. But to see that there's an order to all things is a very engaging concept.
Then onto the characters... This one's a bit hard. Geralt is wonderfully holding his own next to the endless crusade on his very existence but what I love the most is how heartbreaking his perception of himself is. There are still times when I question whether he's really what they tell him he is - cold "monster". When he was facing Istredd, he tended to assimilate a lot of other people's proclamations but then, at the end of their clash, his childlike joy once again turned all of that on its head. We occasionally get chapters quite focused on him, and those are a joy to read because at the end of the day, he's a broken man you're rooting for to rise. Fear gets the better of him often, insecurity regarding his very being makes him falter, and longing for others fills his grim world with some sunshine.
Jaskier is Jaskier. A companion that comes and goes, reads Geralt like a book and grows on him so. What else can I say about him but what he did in the Essi Daven chapter was out of this world. There's something paternal about him, if that's not a weird thing to say.
Yennefer now... Seeing a lot of "she's rude and tough" interpretations of her, I thought that's what I'd find. But no. In The Last Wish chapter, I couldn't help but see her through Geralt's eyes, wounded but proud. Perhaps he saw someone quite like him. Except she hisses a lot. Not the greatest mage ever how I pictured her (I can thank her reputation that stems from the games) and at times a lady in trouble, most certainly a love interest that keeps slipping away, torn apart by things like "it will never be enough", she's intriguing mostly for the effect she produces in Geralt. That's what I get from her for now.
A lot of bypassing characters also left quite an impression on me. This thing is not in the least boring.
I've mentioned it before here, but these books made me laugh out loud a dozen of times. That's something I rarely experienced. I was seeking some confirmation on whether I'm reading this right but it is what it is for me. The simulated old speech and the use of words you don't come across that often in such a seemingly serious narrative cause a fit of hysterical laughter. For example, when Geralt explains to Jaskier (?) how Yennefer took a piss out of him (napravila je goli kurac od mene) or how Yennefer threatened Geralt for underestimating her while at the same time staring at her nasapunjane sise, I lost it. Kudos to translators.
Now onto the general ambience... This story goes from lows to highs, never settling for a default m.o. It has depth, humour and fillers. It has the kick and it has the punch.
Regarding the adaptations... Do I think that it's a mighty fine literature that I want to see on the screen adapted from A to Z? Not really. It's impossible, simply impossible. The way it's written... It builds up to things, it takes its time, smallest details from the most eventful chapters somehow make their way into being relevant 200 pages later. As a book, this is one beautiful journey that leaves some of it to your imagination. Maybe that's the hook, where you claim the right to it as a creator when, in fact, you were a spectator from the start.
I disagree with a lot of criticism for the "trashy" Netflix show I encounter on this sub but I love the books, and the writing only keeps getting better. The show sold me what I expected I'd find in the source material. The universe of Witcher saga might keep expanding with even more takes on it. I think it has established itself as a cult classic already and it won't stop here.
One similar story I can recommend is in a form of a manga, it's called Battle Angel Alita. The main character is a girl whose body is fully artificial, and her only human feature remaining is her brain. She goes on a quest quite similar to Geralt's, seeking her humanity, facing a depressing world with a lot of cruel tragedies. The motif of destiny is strong in it, but it gets poignant and inspirational even more than Witcher, creating build-ups that struck a chord only at the finish. A parallel to Geralt in being a strong and capable warrior that makes mistakes, questions herself and fights for those she loves but is ultimately a lone wolf. The structures of the stories are immensely similar, with side characters that pull you in.
That's it from me.
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2019.12.09 14:25 FrodeKommode TV2 Norway at 21:40 tonight will focus on JW and other high control christian religious communities

https://www.tv2.no/mening-og-analyse/11049975/
Please watch if you can!(Subbed version will be provided somehow later)
Google translate:

Why don't we talk more about closed Christian congregations?

Every year, 500 people ask for help to get out of strict Christian communities in Norway. Half of them are struggling with anxiety and depression. Why do we talk so little about this?
Each year, more than six hundred million tax NOK ($55m) are distributed to churches and religious communities in Norway. Some of them we know a lot about. Others thrive in the shadows.
In the third episode of the documentary series "Norway Behind the Facade", colleague Janne Amble and I try to get inside two of the most well-known closed Christian faiths. It has not been an easy job.
Work on tonight's episode, "In the Name of God," has been one of the most demanding we have done in the documentary series. It is the episode where we have met the strongest resistance from those we have had a desire to focus on.
Watch the documentary "In God's Name" on TV 2 tonight at 21.40
Especially one of the faith communities that we wanted to look into has done their utmost to prevent us from telling about life in the congregation. They would not put on a TV interview and neither would we get in behind the facade.
Struggles with anxiety and depression
I am surprised how little we talk about closed Christian congregations in public. Although most members of such faiths experience good and safe fellowship, some struggle. For them, belief in health has come loose.
Up to five hundred desperate people contact the volunteer organization Help Source every single year. They give advice to those who have managed to get out of a controlling religious environment or who are considering it. Essentially, these are young adults in strict Christian faiths. Those who do not feel more negative social control. According to the Help Source, half of those who are in contact with anxiety, depression and grief are struggling.
We met several who have tried to take their lives. Some had cut the pulse vein several times. It was "not as easy as on film" one of them said. Someone stands openly in the documentary and talks about it. Others talk about how they struggle mentally, even in adulthood. Especially because of strict sexual control during childhood. So stern that one of the men we meet hit himself hard in the step as a 13-year-old when thoughts went in the "wrong" direction.
Strangers in their own country
Although some of the sources we met managed to get out, they have a hard time. They are experiencing a life crisis. First and foremost because it is not easy to find their place in the larger community. Many feel like strangers in their own country when they come out of the bubble in which they were born and raised. The organization Hjelpekilden believes it is easier to integrate refugees into Norwegian society than to defectors from closed Christian congregations.
Those who break out struggle extra because families have often broken all contact. They no longer exist for their loved ones. Every day they miss parents, siblings and friends. Everything they had of networking was lost because they chose their own path in life. Therefore, few of those who put up a face in the program tonight want their last name on TV. For the sake of their families who are still active in the congregations.
One of the hardest things for Amble and me was getting those who are still active in the religious communities into speech. They have been terrified of talking. We met a man in a hotel room and gave him newly purchased clothes so that he could not be recognized on TV. The voice is dubbed by an actor, and his face is blurred. He knows that if it leaks out to be one of our sources, then he loses his entire family.
Fear of consequences
Another person inside another Christian church also had a lot of heart. Unfortunately, he resigned when the episode was almost finished. Although this person was completely anonymous, he thought the phone was hacked and that the congregation had found out that TV 2 was in contact with him / her. After seeing how scared the person was, we removed the interview from the documentary.
I've been a journalist for a number of years. Over the years, there have been some source meetings. Everything from hard-core criminals to police officers who have sensitive information. But I have never experienced the fear of consequences. It has made an impression to see how powerful forces are swinging in some authoritarian religious environments.
No friends outside the church
In Norway, we are good at discussing Muslim religious communities in public space. It is necessary and important. And we should continue with that. The undersigned has also long had a critical focus on extreme Muslim communities. But what about strict Christian faiths? For example, those who refuse their children to celebrate birthdays, Christmas and May 17. Thousands of ethnic Norwegian children are thus not allowed to celebrate National Day. Should we not talk more about what it is like for young people to grow up in such churches? Does religious freedom trump human rights for children? Many of those we met felt invisible in childhood. They wanted the majority community to see them and care.
In the documentary, a man says that members of the faith community are not allowed to have friends outside the congregation. Therefore he has none. The reason is that the world is evil and, moreover, it is ruled by Satan, according to his church. What do our politicians think about this? What would have happened if a Muslim religious community had proclaimed that it is not allowed to have friends outside the mosque? I don't think it would have been as quiet.
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2019.11.13 12:57 MarleyEngvall you were has been created

By Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D. LECTURE XLII. THE FALL OF BABYLON. THE moment of the Jewish history which we have now reached coincides with one of the most strongly- marked epochs in the history of the world. As far as the course of human progress is concerned there have been three vast periods, of which two have already passed away. They may be called, in general terms, Primæval History, Classical History, and Modern His- tory. Each of these periods has its beginning, middle, and end——its ancient and modern stage——but the whole of each is marked by its own general character- istics. In the Primæval History we must include all that series of events which begins with the first down of civilization in Egypt and Mesopotamia. It is a period of which the Semitic races (taking that word in the most extended sense) were the predominant elements of power and genius——the Assyrians at Nin- eveh, the Phœnicians in Tyre and Sidon and their distant colonies, the Israelites in Palestine, the Egyp- tians, though with infusion of other races, in the valley of the Nile, the Chaldæans, though with a like hetero- geneous infusion, on the banks of the Euphrates. Of these nations, with the single exception of the Israel- ites, we have, properly speaking, no history. Their manners and customs, their religion, the succession of their sovereigns are known to us. But we have no con- tinuous series of events; although the knowledge of them is fuller, through the investigations of the last fifty years, than in former times, yet it is still shadowy, fragmentary, mythical. They are like figures seen in the dreams of Sardanapalus, as depicted by the modern poet; here a mighty hunter or con- queror like Nimrod, or Sesostris, or Sennacherib, there a fierce and voluptuous queen like Semiramis——yet All along Of various "aspects, but of one expression." But the time was now arrived when this giant age was to come to an end. It is the epoch in the Eastern World when we begin to discern the lineaments and traits of the first teachers of farther Asia, whose careers are distinctly known to us, and whose influence still lives down to our own time. In the Western World it is the date, almost to a year, when Grecian literature begins to throw its light far and wide on everything that it touches. Even in Egypt, Amasis is the first king of whose personal character we have any knowledge as distinct from the public acts,or the length of the reigns, of the other Pharaohs. In the same generation, even in the very same year, we meet the accession of two great potentates in Greece and in the Grecian colonies of Asia Minor——Pisistratus at Athens, Crœsus at Sardis. The same date brings us into the midst of the first authentic characters of Roman history in the reign of the Tarquins. From this time forward the classical world of Greece and Italy occupies the whole horizon of our thoughts, till its own days are numbered by the fall of Rome and the inva- sion of the German tribes, which was to usher in the period of Modern History in Europe. With a like catastrophe did the earlier epoch come to its conclu- sion, but in the continent which had been its chief seat ——in Asia. And it is exactly this momentous juncture of secular history, this critical pause between the middle and the final epoch of Jewish history, at which we are now ar- rived. The fall of Jerusalem coincides with the fall, or beginning of the fall,of those ancient monarchies and nations which had occupied the attention of civil- ized men down to this time. We have already seen how the chorus of the Jewish Prophets at the close of the monarchy prepared the way for the final overthrow of the oldest historic world, much as the Christian Fathers heralded the overthrow of the Greco-Roman world. We have seen how Ezekiel sat over against the grave of the nations, into which tribe after tribe, kingdom after kingdom, even the stately ship of Tyre, the cedar of Assyria, the venerable Egypt, went plung- ing down to the dark abyss where "the bloody "corpses" of the past, yet but green in the earth, Lay festering in their shrouds. But now the oldest, the grandest of all was about to descend into the same sepulchral vault which had re- ceived all its predecessors and rivals. The event when it came to the Israelite captives could have been no surprise. It had been long fore- seen by those who sang by the water-side. They were told how, even before the Captivity, on occasion of a visit of homage which the Jewish King Zedekiah paid to Nebuchadnezzar in the early part of his reign, Jere- miah had recorded his detailed prediction of the over- throw of Babylon in a scroll, which he confided to Seraiah, brother of Baruch, himself a high officer in the Judæan Court. Not till he reached the quays of the Euphrates was Seraiah to open and read the fatal record, with the warning that "Babylon shall sink, and "shall not rise again from the face of the evils that "shall come upon her." Deep in its bed the mighty river was believed to have kept its secrets as a pledge of the approaching doom. What that doom was the events now began to disclose. It will be our object to indicate the impression left by it on the Israelite spectators, the only spectators who by means of these thrilling utterances, remain, as it were, the living witnesses of the whole transaction; confirmed on the whole by the broken and scattered notices pre- served in the later Chaldæan annals, or gathered together by the Greeks who penetrated during the next century into Central Asia. It might have been thought difficult to imagine from what quarter the destroyer should come. The chief rivals of Babylon were gone. The dominions that had with it played their part on the battlefield of the nations had passed away, and the Empire of Nebuchad- nezzar was left, as it seemed, in solitary and unassail- able majesty. "I have made completely strong the "defences of Babylon," said Nebuchadnezzar in his great inscription; "may it last for ever!" Not so. The prescient eye of the Hebrew Prophets was clearly fixed on that point of the horizon whence the storm would issue. There was a mightier wall even than the walls of Babylon, with gates which could not be opened and shut at the command of Princes, that runs across the centre of the whole Ancient World; the backbone alike of Europe and Asia. It begins in the far East with the Hima- layas; it attaches itself to the range of the diverging lines of the Zagros and Elburz ranges; it unites them in the Imaus, the Caucasus, and the Taurus; it reap- pears after a slight interruption in the range of Hæmus; it melts the Carpathian and Styrian Mountains; it rises again in the Alps; it reaches its western buttress in the Pyrenees. On the southern side, on the sunny slopes of this gigantic barrier grew up the civilized nations of antiq- uity, the ancient monumental religions and politics of India, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, as afterwards farther west, the delicate yet powerful commonwealths of Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy. On the northern or darker side, behind its mighty screen, were restrained and nurtured the fierce tribes which have from time to time descended to scourge or regenerate the civilization of the South. Such in later days have been the Gauls, the Goths, the Vandals, the Huns, the Tartars; such, more nearly within the view of the age of which we are now speaking, the Scythians; and such was now, although in a somewhat milder form, the enemy on whom, as Tacitus in the day of Trajan already fixed his gave with mingled fear and admiration on the tribes of Germany, so the Israelite Prophet looked for the de- velopment of the new crisis of the world. Already the Psalmist had seen that neither in the East nor West nor South, but in the North was the seat of future change. Already Ezekiel had been startled by the vision of the wild nomads pouring over the hills that had hitherto parted them from their destined prey. And now Jeremiah, and it may be some older Prophet, heard yet more distinctly the gathering of war——an assembly of great nations against Babylon from the north country, with resistless weapons for which all those races were famous. And now yet more nearly the Great Unnamed points not only to the north, but to the eastern quarter of the north. Already on "the bare hill-top" a banner was raised and the call was gone forth; there was a rushing sound as of multitudes in the distant mountain valleys; the shriek of alarm went up from the plains; the faces of the terrified dwellers of Mesopotamia were lit up with a lurid glow of fear. It was the might race which occupied the table-land between the two mountain-ranges of Zagros and Elburz, of which we have just spoken——the Median and Per- san tribes now just rising into importance. That nation whose special education was to ride on horses, to shoot wit the bow, and to speak the truth, was now in full march against no less a prey the arrows of a mighty "expert man; the archers, the nation of archers, with "their bows all bent," were gathered to camp against the city. They hold their bows and lances, they bend their bows and shoot and spare no arrows. They are there with their splendid cavalry riding on horses in battle-array; they shout with their deafening war-cry. The force and energy with which their descent is de- scribed agrees with their significance in the history of the Eastern empires. "With the appearance of the Per- "sians," says a brilliant French writer, "the movement "of history begins and humanity throws itself into that "restless march of progress which henceforth is never "to cease. A vague instinct pushes them forward to "the conquest of all around them. They throw them- "selves headlong on the Semitic races. They are not "contented with Asia. The East under them seems to "migrate towards the West. They do not halt even "at the Hellespont, nor till they have reached the "shores of Salamis." And not merely the nation, and the hour, but the very man was now in sight who should accomplish this great work. The fated hero had arisen, in the same eventful year of which we have already spoken, the year 560, twenty years after the beginning of the Jewish exile——Cyrus, or Koresh, or Khosroo, the King of the Persians. Al- ready the Grecian colonies had felt his heavy hand: already Media had been absorbed into his dominion. On him the expectation of the nations was fixed. Would he be, like the other chiefs and princes of the age, a mere transient conqueror, or would he indeed be the Deliverer who should inaugu- rate the fall of the old and the rise of the new world? "I have called the man from the East, the ravenous "bird," the eagle of Persia, which long blazed on its standards. With no uncertain sound the greatest prophetic voice of the time marked him out as the one Anointed Prince, the expected Messiah alike of the Chosen People and of all the surrounding nations. "Thus saith the Eternal to Cyrus, who I have "anointed, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue "nations before him. Cyrus is my shepherd and shall "perform all my pleasure." The day of Persian glory which he ushered in, the empire which he founded, for that brief time, embraced all that there was of civilization from the Himalayas to the Ægean sea. "For one brilliant moment the Per- "sian, like the Greek afterwards, and the Roman at a "still later day, was the central man of the world." There was, indeed, everything which conspired to fit the new conqueror for this critical place in the history of the world and of the Church. To us, looking at the crisis from a distance that enables us to see the whole extent of the new era which he was to open, this poetic and historic fitness is full of deep significance. We are entering on an epoch when the Semitic race is to make way for the Aryan or Indo-Germanic nations, which, through Greece and Rome, are henceforward to sway the destiny of mankind. With those nation Cyrus, first of Asiatic potentates, is to enter into close relations—— with Greece henceforth the fortunes of Persia will be inseparably bound up. Nay, yet more, of all the great nations of Central Asia Persia alone is of the same stock as Greece and Rome and Germany. It was a true insight into the innermost heart of this vast move- ment which enabled the Prophet, as we have seen, to discern in it not merely the blessing of his own people, but the union of the distant isles of the Western sea with the religion hitherto confined to the uplands of Asia. It was one of those points of meet- ing between the races of Jepheth and the race of Shem that have been truly said to be the turning-points of human history. Yet again, though we know but little of the indi- vidual character of Cyrus, he, first of the ancient con- querors, appears in other than a merely despotic and destructive aspect. It can hardly be without founda- tion that in both Greek and Hebrew literature he is represented as the type of a just and gentle prince. In the Cyropædia of Xenophon, however mingled with fiction, he appears as no other barbaric sovereign that figured in Grecian story. In the Jewish Prophet and Chronicler he is a Liberator and Benefactor of Israel such as had never crossed their path. First of the great Asiatic kings, we can track him through the varying adventures of youth and age, from his cradle to his grave, and stand (as who could stand unmoved?) before the simple yet stately tomb of snow-white marble which still remains at Pasargadæ, and once contained the golden coffin of "Cyrus the King, the Achæmenian." But, yet more, he belongs to the only nation in the then state of the world which, in any sense at all approaching to the Israelite, acknowl- edged the unity of the Godhead. The religion of the Persian was, of all the Gentile forms of faith, the most simple an most spiritual. Their abhorrence of idols was pushed almost to fanaticism. "They have "no images of the gods, no temples, no altars, and "consider the use of them as a sign of folly." This was Herodotus' account of the Persians of his own day, and it is fully borne out by what we know of their religion and of their history. When Cyrus broke in upon Babylon, as when his son Cambyses broke in upon Egypt, as when Xerxes broke in upon Greece, it might almost have seemed as if the knell of Polytheism had been sounded throughout the world. Who or what was the Prince that reigned over Babylon in the supreme hour of her fate, or how long its defence was maintained against the invading army we can only discern with difficulty amongst the conflicting accounts. The only king in whom, after Nebuchadnezzar, the Hebrew and the Chaldæan annals clearly agree is Evil-merodach, the liberator of Jehoiachin. Then come, in rapid succes- sion in the Chaldæan annals, Neriglissar, Laboroso- archod, and Nabu-nahid. In Herodotus the interval is filled by the one name of Labynetus, in the Book of Daniel by the one name of Belshazzar, which, there alone preserved in written records, has recently re- ceived from the monuments the apparent elucidation that it is the same as Bil-shar-uzar, the son and col- league of Nabu-nahid. But "amongst all the later "reminiscences of the conquest of Babylon one never- "to-be-forgotten feature always rises above the rest, "namely, the amazing rapidity with which the victory "was gained, and the manner in which the whole "Chaldæan supremacy was shattered by it, as at a "single blow. The capture of Babylon in a "single night, while the Babylonians were "celebrating in careless ease a luxurious feast, is the "fixed kernel of the tradition in all its forms; and the "outline of it in the Book of Daniel stands out all the "more boldly from the dark background, and casts a "fiery glow upon the whole narrative." That faint "outline has taken a place in the solemn imagery of the world that no doubtfulness of details can ever efface or alter. "There was "the sound of revelry by night" in the streets of Ba- bylon at some high festival of Nebo and Merodach. Regardless of the dread extremity of their country and of the invading army round their walls, the whole population, through street and garden, through square and temple, were given up to the proverbial splendor and intoxication of the Babylonian feasts; music, per- fumes, gold and silver plate, nothing was wanting. In the midst and chief of this was the feast of the King, whom the Hebrew tradition called "Belshazzar, the "son of Nebuchadnezzar." On this fatal night he comes out from the usual seclusion of the eastern kings, and sits in the same hall with the thousands of his nobles at a scene the likeness of which, even in our modern days, can be imagined by those who have seen the state banquets of the most Oriental of European potentates on the shores of the Neva or the Mosqua. Before them is the choice wine with which, from far countries, the Babylonian tables were laden. From the Temple of Bel, where they have been treasured up since the conqueror had carried them off from Jerusalem, are brought the vessels of gold and silver, the bowls and the caldrons, the spoons, the knives, the cups, which had been regarded by the Jewish nation as the very palladium of the State——alike the thirty chargers and thirty vases of gold which had been made for the Temple of Solomon, and had continued there till the captivity of Jehoiachin, and the thousand chargers and four hundred basins of silver by which Zedekiah had supplied their place, and which were carried away in the final deportation. Into them the wine is poured and drunk by the King, with his nobles, and with the women of his harem, who, according to the shameless custom of the Babylonians, are present at the banquet. Round about are placed the images of the gods of wood and stone, of iron and brass, plated with gold and silver. "In that same hour came forth the fingers of a "man's hand and wrote over against" the great can- dlestick which lighted up the pale stucco on the wall of the Palace, to which the banqueting hall was at- tached, "and the King saw the part of the hand which "wrote." Then follows the panic of the assembled spectators as they find themselves in the presence of an enigma which they cannot decipher. "I know," said a great French scholar and philosopher in the Imperial Library of Paris in the winter of 1870, "I know "that I am turning over the leaf of a fresh page in "history, but what is on the page I cannot read." Such is the perplexity described when the wisdom of all the world-renowned learning of Babylon was sum- moned to interpret the writing, with the offer of the purple robe and golden chain of royal favor, and the next place i the kingdom after the two royal persons of the State. Then appears the venerable personage always regarded in eastern Monarchies with especial reverence, the Queen Mother——the "Sultana Validé" ——in this instance increased is she may be identified with Nitocris, the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar, her- self the architect of some of the great outworks of the city. Once more, in her mouth, the all-transcending wis- dom and judgment of Daniel is set forth, reviving and recalling from long seclusion, as after the manner of the East, the antique sage or statesman of the former gen- eration to rebuke the folly of the younger. And then, like Elijah before Ahab, like Tiresias before Creon in the Grecian drama, is brought the hoary seer, with his accumulated weight of years and honors, to warn the terror-stricken King, and to read the decree of fate which no one else to interpret. Where the astrol- oger and the diviner had failed, true science had dis- covered the truth. Again and again have those mystic words been repeated, and will be repeated to the end of time; yet never with more significance than on the occasion whence they derived. They were, as be- fitting the city which claimed to be the mother of letters, not in new signs or hieroglyphics, but in distinct He- brew characters; and through their brief and broken utterance there ran a double, treble significance. Mene, the first word, twice recorded, carried with it the judgment that the days of the kingdom were num- bered and ended; Tekel carried the doom that it was weighted and found light; Peres, the third, that it was divided and given to the Persians (Pharsin)—— the first appearance in history of that famous name which now, for the first time, stepped into the older form of "Elam," and has never since been lost. "In that same night was Belshazzar the King slain." ——so briefly and terribly is the narrative cut short in the Book of Daniel. But from the contemporary au- thorities, or those of the next century, we are able to fill up some of the details as they were anticipated or seen at the time. It may be that, as ac- cording to Berosus, the end was not without a struggle; and that one or other of the Kings who ruled over Bab- ylon was killed in a hard-won fight without the walls. But the larger part of the accounts are steady to the suddenness and completeness of the shock, and all com- bine in assigning an important part to the great river, which, as it had been the pride of Babylon, now proved its destruction. The stratagems by which the water was diverted, first in the Gyndes and then in the Eu- phrates, are given partly by Heroditus and partly by Xenophon. It is their effect alone which need here be described. "A way was made in the sea"——that sea-like lake——"and a path in the mighty waters." Chariot and horse, army and power" are, as in the battle of the Milvian bridge, lost in the dark stream to rise up no more, extinguished like a torch plunged in the waters. The hundred gates, all of bronze, along the vast circuit of the walls, the folding-doors, the two-leaved gates which so carefully guarded the ap- proaches of the Euphrates, opened as if by magic for the conqueror; "her waves roared like great waters, the "thunder of their voice was uttered." The inhabit- ants were caught in the midst of their orgies. The Hebrew seer trembled as he saw the revellers uncon- scious of their own impending doom, like the Persian seer for his own countrymen before the battle of Platæa, έχθιστή οδύνη. But it was too late. "Her princes, "and her wise men were cast into a perpetual "sleep" from which they never woke. They suc- cumbed without a struggle, they forbore to fight. They remained in the fastness of their towering houses; their might failed; they became as women; they were hewn down like the flocks of lambs, of sheep, of goats, in the shambles or at the altar. To and fro, in the panic of tat night, the messengers encountered each other with the news that the city was taken at one end, before the other end knew. The bars were broken, the passages were stopped, the tall houses were in flames, the fountains were dried up by the heat of the conflagration. The conquerors, chiefly the fiercer the mountaineers from the Median mountains, dashed through the terrified city like wild beasts. They seemed to scent out blood for its own sake; they cared not for the splendid metals that lay in the Babylonian treasure-houses; they hunted down the fugitives as if they were chasing deer or catching runaway sheep. With their huge bows they cut in pieces the young men whom they encountered; they literally fulfilled the savage wish of the Israelite captives, by seizing the in- fant children and hurling them against the ground, till they were torn limb from limb in the terrible havoc. A celestial sword flashes a first, a second, a third, a fourth, and yet again a fifth time, at each successive blow sweeping away the Chiefs of State, the idle boast- ers, the chariots, the treasures, and the waters. The Ham- mer of the Nations struck again and again and again, as on the resounding anvil——and with repeated blows beat down the shepherd as he drove his flock through the wide pasture of the cultivated spaces, the husband- man as he tilled the rich fields within the walls with his yoke of oxen———no less than the lordly prince or chief. The houses were shattered; the walls of their broad walks on their tops, the gateways mounting up like towers, were in flames. And yet mores significant even than the fall of the monarchy and the ruin of the city was the overthrow of the old religion of the Chaldæan world by the zeal of the Persian monotheists. The huge golden statue of Bel, the Sun-God——from which Babylon itself, "the "gate of Bel," derived its name——on the summit of his lofty temple; Nebo, the Thoth, the Hermes, the God of the Chaldæan learning, to whom at least three of the Babylonian kings were consecrated by name, in his sanctuary at Borsippa, of which the ruins still re- main; Merodach, the tutelary god of the city, the fa- vorite deity of Nebuchadnezzar, "the Eldest, the most "ancient" of the divinities——trembled as the Israelites believed, from head to foot, as the great Iconoclast approached. "Bel bowed down and Nebo stooped, Me- "rodach is broken in pieces." The High Priest might stand out long against the conquerors, and defend the venerated images at the cost of his life; they could not resist the destroyer a shock; their vast size did but increase the horror, it may be said, the grotesqueness, of their fall; the beasts of burden on which the broken fragments would have to be piled groaned under the expectation of the weight; the wagons which bore them away creaked under the prospect of the unwieldy freight. With the fall of these greater divinities, the lesser fell also. In the more cynical form of the later traditions the frauds of the selfish Priesthood were ex- posed; the monster shapes of the old worship were burst asunder by the sagacity of the Jewish captive and the special favor of the Persian king. But in the an- cient contemporary witnesses there is no such littleness mixed with the proud exultation, which tells only how in the same general ruin all the sculptured figures came clattering down and were broken to fragments. And where was the King? The Chaldæan records describe how the Prince who had taken refuge at Bor- sippa was carried off captive to the mountains of Cara- mania. But the Jewish records know nothing but the king who "in that same night" was slain. Belshazzar's grave is made, His kingdom passed away. He, in the balance weigh'd, Is light and worthless clay; The shroud, his robe of state; His canopy of stone. The Mede is at his gate, The Persian on his throne! That same vivid description which in the Book of Dan- iel tells how "his countenance was changed, and his "thoughts troubled him, and the joints of his loins were "loosed, and his knees smote one against another," finds an echo or a forecast in the Book of Jeremiah,—— "the King of Babylon hath heard the report, ad his "hands waxed feeble, and anguish took hold of him, "and pangs as of a woman in travail." But there was yet a loftier strain in which (it may be, first spoken of the fall of Sennacherib) the captive Israelites were en- joined in the days that they should find "rest from "their sorrow and their fear and their hard bondage" to take up this ancient song against the king of Baby- lon and say: "How hath the oppressor ceased, and "ceased the Golden City!" They should figure to themselves the world of shades, where, as n the tombs of the Egyptian Thebes, the kings of the nations are resting on their thrones each in his glory. They should imag- ine those dark regions stirred through all their depths at the approach of the new comer. It is not the feeble Belshazzar or the unknown Nabonadius that is thus conceived as alarming those phantoms of the mighty dead. It must be, if not Nebuchadnezzar, at last Nebu- chadnezzar's spirit enshrined in his descendants, who, as "the Last of the Babylonians," seems to bear with him all the magnificence of his empire. Down, down that deep descent has come his splendor, and his music with him, as in Ezekiel's vision the heroes enter the lower world with their swords of state, as in the Egyptian tombs the dead kings are surrounded with the harping and the feasting of the Palaces they have left. It is the Morning Star of the early dawn of the Eastern na- tions that has fallen from his place in the sky. It is the giant who, like those of old, would be climbing up above the clouds, above the stars, above the assembly of Heaven, on the highest heights of the mountains of the sacred North. It is the oppressor who made the earth to tremble, who shook kingdoms, desolated the world, and destroyed its cities, and opened not the house of his prisoners. This was he, on whom as the shadows of the departed looked, they saw that he was become weak as one of them——this he was (and here the reference to Belshazzar becomes more apposite) who was laid in no royal sepulchre, but cast aside like a withered branch, buried under the heaps of the bleeding corpses. And the city itself, which to the Hebrew exiles ap- peared like their own beloved Jerusalem, in the form of a stately Queen——the Daughter, in Incar- nation, as it were, of the place itself——the Virgin, the Impregnable, Fortress, she, too, crouches on the dust with the meanest of her slaves: in the penal labor of grinding in the mill with the lowliest of Eastern women. She has to bare her limbs, as she passes through her own streams; she is to sit silent and pass into darkness; she shall no more be called the Lady of the Kingdoms. The pride of power, the pride of science, alike are levelled; neither her astrolo- gers nor her merchants can save her; she is become a threshing-floor——the winnowing fan shall sweep over her. 
from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. II: From The Captivity To The Christian Era, by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, 1879; pp. 51 - 70
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By Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D. LECTURE XLVIII. JUDAS MACCABÆUS. B. C. 175-163. ——•—— AUTHORITIES. HISTORICAL. (1) 1 Maccabees—Greek translation of a lost Hebrew original, which bore the name of Sarbath Sar Beni El, B. C. 120. It con- tains the history from the accession of Antochus to the death of Simon. 2 Maccabees—Greek abridgement of a lost work of Jason of Cy- rene, B. C. 160, in five books. B. C. 100-50. It contains the history from the accession of Antiochus to the death of Judas, with legendary additions. 3 Maccabees—Greek. No Latin translation, and therefore in the Greek Bible, but not in the Roman, Lutheran, or English Bible. B. C. 50? It contains the account of the persecu- tions by Ptolemy Philopater. 4 Maccabees—Greek—wrongly ascribed to Josephus, but print- ed in his works. B. C. 4? It contains an amplification of 2 Macc. vi. 18, vii. 42. 5 Maccabees—A late work, certainly after A. D. 70—known only in Arabic and Syriac. It contains the history both of the Asmoneans and of Herod. These five books were published in one English volume by Arch- deacon Cotton, 1832. (2) Josephus Ant. xii. 5-11, B. J. i. 1, A. D. 71. PROPHETICAL AND POETICAL. (1) Daniel—probably B. C. 167-164. (See Note on Lecture XLII.) (2) Psalms lxxiv., lxxix. (3) Psalter of Solomon (Fabricius, Codex Pseud. v. i., p. 914-999)— B. C. 167-162? (4) Sibylline Books, iii. 2, 3. B. C. 165, or B. C. 124. GENTILE. (1) Diodorus Siculus, xxxiv. 4, xl. 1. (2) Polybius, xxvi. 10, xxxi. 3, 4. (3) Livy, xli. 21. LECTURE XLVIII. JUDAS MACCABÆUS. THE close connection between the Jews of Palestine and the Ptolemæan dynasty received a rude shock in the outrage of Ptolemy Philopator; and, as at the same time they had been on friendly terms with An- tiochus III., from the time of his victory over the Egyptian forces by the source of the Jordan at Paneas, their allegiance was gradually transferred to the Sy- rian kingdom. At this point, therefore, we turn from Alexandria to Antioch, from Egypt to Syria. In the northern extremity of Syria, where "the "fourth river" of the Lebanon ranges, after having risen from its abundant fountain in the centre of those hills, bends through the rich plains to escape into the Mediterranean out of the pressure of the ridges of Mount Casius and Mount Amanus, the first Seleucus founded the city to which, after his father Antiochus, he gave the name to Antioch—a city destined to owe its chief celebrity not to it Grecian, but is Semitic surroundings; destined in sacred as- sociations in one sense to outshine Jerusalem itself. It would almost seem as if Alexandria and Antioch had divided between them the two characteristics of the old metropolis of the primeval world. If Alexan- dria represented the learning and commerce of Babylon —the nobler elements of ancient civilization—Antioch represented it splendor, it luxury, its vanities. And, accordingly, whilst the relations of Israel to the Ptole- mies are almost all pacific and beneficent, its relations to the Seleucidæ are almost all antagonistic and re- pulsive. Sometimes the thought occurs whether it was pos- sible for the Judaism of Palestine to have absorbed the genial and artistic side of the Grecian polytheism, as, in fact, the Judaism of Alexandria did to a large extent absorb the speculative and spiritual side of the Grecian Philosophy. An honored name appears at the opening of the struggle on which we are now entering—Antigonus of Socho, who was regarded as the founder of some such attempt to com- bine a broader view of religion with the Judaic auster- ity handed down from Ezra. One saying of his alone remains, but it is full of significance an shows how a seed of a future faith had already borne fruit in that dark and troubled time. "Be not like those servants "who busy themselves to serve their masters in the "hope of reward, but be like those servants who busy "themselves to serve their masters without expectation "of recompense, and the favor of Heaven be over you." But whatever was the higher aspect of the Grecian party in Judæa was speedily cast into the shade by the deadly struggle which was now being waged between the accursed "kingdom of Javan," as the Syrian dynasty was called and the stern patriots who saw in its policy the attempt to suppress all that had sanctified and ennobled their national exist- ence. In this struggle two parties only were recognized by its historian, "the "Chasidim" or "pious," —a name already familiar in the Psalter—and their opponents, to whom was given the opprobrious designa- tion also borrowed from the Psalter, "sinners," 'law- "less," "impious." The aggression o the part of the Syrian kings had already begun in the reign of Seleucus IV., with the encouragement of the Hellenizing party, for the moment headed by one of the mischiev- ous clan known as the sons of Tobias. The first at- tempt was on the Temple treasures, including the pri- vate deposits, which as in a bank had been laid up for the widows and orphans under the shelter of the sanct- uary. Then it was that occurred the scene portrayed in the liveliest colors in the traditions of the next century, when Heliodorus the king's treasurer came with an armed guard to seize it. It is a complete representation of what must have been the general aspect of a panic in Jerusalem. The Priests in their official costume are prostrate before the altar. The High Priest is in such "an inward agony of mind "that whoso had looked at his countenance and chang- "ing color, it would have wounded his heart." The Temple courts are crowded with supplicants; the ma- trons, with bare bosoms, running frantically through the street; the maidens, unable to break their seclu- sion, yet peering over walls, and through windows, and at every door to catch the news; the pitiless officer bent on discharging his mission. Then the scene changes. A horse with a terrible rider in golden armor dashes into the Temple precinct and tramples Heliodorus under foot, whilst on the other side stood two magnificent youths, who lash the prostrate intruder to the very verge of death, from which he is only res- cued by the prayers of Onias. The story lives only in the legends of the time, and was passed over alike by the contemporary and later historians. But when Raffaelle wished to depict the triumph of Pope Julius II. over the enemies of the Pontificate he could find no fitter scene to adorn forever the walls of the Vatican than that which represents the celestial cham- pion, with the vigor of immortal youth, trampling on the prostrate robber. Whatever may have been the actual incident thus enshrined, it was the natural prelude to the undoubted history which followed. It was reserved for the suc- cessor of Seleucus IV. to precipitate the crisis which had been long expected. Antiochus IV. was one of those strange characters in whom an eccentricity touching insanity on the left and genius on the right combined with absolute power and lawless passion to produce a por- tentious result, thus bearing out the two names by which he was known—Epiphanes—"the Brilliant," and Epimanes, "the Madman." On the one hand, even through the terrible picture drawn by the Jewish his- torians, traits of generosity and even kindness tran- spire. And in his splendid buildings, his enlargement and almost creation of Antioch as a magnificent capital —his plans for joining it with the bay of Scanderoon and thus making it a maritime emporium—his mu- nificence throughout the Grecian world, his determina- tion, however mischievous in its results, of consolid- ating a homogeneous Eastern Empire against the aggressions of the newly-rising Empire of the West— there is a grandeur of conception which corresponds to the contemporary Prophetic delineation of "the king "of an invincible countenance, understanding dark sentences and full of high swelling words." On the other hand, there was an extravagance, a littleness, in all his demeanor, which agrees with the unintelligible madman of the Gentile writers "the vile person" of the Hebrew poets and historians. They saw, instead of the literary Ptolemies or the godlike Alexander, a fantastic creature without dignity or self-control, caricaturing in a public masquerade the manners and dress of the august Roman magistrates, playing prac- tical jokes in the public streets and baths of Antioch, startling a group of young revelers by bursting in upon them with pipe and horn; tumbling with the bathers on the slippery marble pavement, as they ran to receive the shower of precious ointment which he had prepared for himself. The contradiction of the two sides of his character was wound up to its climax in the splendor of the procession which he organized at Daphne, in the most stately style, to outshine the most magnificent of the Roman triumphs, but in which he himself appeared riding in and out on a hack pony, playing the part of chief waiter, mountebank, and jester. It was a union of lofty policy and petty buffoonery, of high aspirations and small vexations, which reminds us of the attempts of Peter the Great to occidentalize Russia; as in the opposition of the old Muscovite party and of the Rascolniks we have a resemblance of the determined antagonism of the "Chasidim" to the Hel- lenization of their race. But Peter's attempt was founded on a far-seeing principle—that of Antiochus on a short-sighted fancy. The resistance of the Russian Dissenters was the mere tenacity of ancient prejudice. The resistance of the Jewish patriots was the determi- nation of a superior faith. To bring into a uniform submission to himself and the Gods of Greece, amongst whom he reckoned him- self, the various creeds and usages which he found under his sway became his fixed idea, fostered in part by his own personal vanity, partly by the desire to imitate the Roman policy, which he had studied whilst a hostage in Rome. In this design he was assisted by the Grecian party, of which we have spoken, in Pales- tine itself. The passion for Grecian connections showed itself in the desire to establish a claim of kindred with the Lacedæmonians, amongst whom a Jewish colony seems to have been established, and with whom a cor- respondence was alleged, as if Sparta too, in her fallen state, was eager to cultivate friendly relations with them. The names of the Macedonian months, hitherto unknown, were adopted either beside or instead of the Hebrew or Chaldæan nomenclature. The fever of Grecian fashions manifested itself in the Grecian nomenclature by which the ancient Hebrew names were superseded or corrupted. We have already seen how the central Judaic settlement had been surrounded by a fringe of Grecian towns. We now encounter the same tendency in the heart of every Jewish family. Jehoiakim becomes Alcimus; Solomon from analogy of the great Jewish and the great Gentile King, becomes Alexander; Salome, Alexandra; Onias, or Joseph, is transformed into Menelaus; Judas be- comes Aristobulus; Mattathias, Antigonus; John or Jonathan, Hyrcanus or Jannæus; Joshua sometimes becomes Jesus, sometimes the Argonautic hero Jason, sometimes Alexander, in its etymological sense of Champion. The era observed by the Jews in their civil contracts, even till A.D. 1040, was the era of the Seleucidæ, still observed by Eastern Christians as the era of Alexander, and adopted by the Syrian kingdom from October, B.C. 312—when the world seemed to begin again from the victory by which Seleucus wrested from Antigonus the ancient capital of Chaldæa, which even in its ruins was the prize of the East. The High Priesthood, like the modern Patriarchates, was sold by the foreign Government, in the needy con- dition of the Syrian finances, to the highest bidder, and amongst the various rivals Jason succeeded, who added to his bribes the attempt to win the favor of Antiochus by adopting the Gentile usages. It is startling to think of the sudden influx of Grecian manners into the very centre of Palestine. The modesty of the sons and daughters of Abraham was shocked by the establish- ment of the Greek palæstra, under the very citadel of David, where, in defiance of some of the most sensitive feelings of their countrymen, the most active of the Jewish youths completely stripped themselves and ran, wrestled, leaped in the public sports, like the Grecian athletes, wearing only the broad-brimmed hat in imi- tation of the headgear of the God Hermes, guardian of the gymnastic festivals. Even the priests in the temple caught the infection, left their sacrificial duties unfin- ished, and ran down from the Temple court to take part in the spectacle as son as they heard the signal for throwing the discus, which was to lead off the games. The sacred names of Jerusalem and Judæa were laid aside in favor of the title of "citizens of An- "tioch." A deputation of these would-be Greeks was sent by "the hateful Jason" to a likeness of the Olympian festival celebrated in the presence of the King at Tyre, in honor of the ancient sanctuary of Moloch or Melcart, now transformed into the Grecian Hercules; though here, with a curious scruple which withheld the pilgrims from going the whole length with their chief, they satisfied their consciences by spending the money intended for the sacrifice in the building of the war-galleys of the Syrian navy. With these lax imitations of the Pagan worship, the corruptions of the Priesthood became more and more scandalous. Mene- laus outbid Jason for the office. Their brother Onias took refuge from his violence in the sanctuary of Apollo at Daphne, near Antioch, and was thence dragged forth and killed, with a sacrilegious per- fidy which shocked Jew and heathen alike, and called out almost the only sign of human feeling which the Jewish annalist allows to the Syrian King. Onias himself, like a Becket or a Stanislaus, was transformed by a popular apotheosis into the celestial champion of his nation; and a long-standing monument of the hor- ror created by his murder was the rival temple at He- liopolis, built by his son Onias, who fled from Palestine on hearing of his father's death, as though there were no longer a home or a sanctuary for him in Palestine. Jason himself, after a momentary victory over his brother Menelaus in Jerusalem, was expelled, and closed a wandering exile by dying amongst the Spartan mountains. "And he that cast out many unburied "had none to mourn for him, nor any solemn funerals "at all, nor sepulchre with his fathers." In the midst of this dissolution of Jewish society it is no wonder that to the tension of imagination which such a time produces portents should have appeared— such as we find not only in the final siege of Jerusalem, but in the Gothic invasion of ancient Rome, in the plague of Papal Rome, in the fall of the Empire of Mon- tezuma in Mexico, in the Plague of London, in the French war of 1870. It happened that "through all "the city, for the space almost of forty days, there "were seen horsemen galloping through the air, in "cloth of gold, and armed with lances like a band of "soldiers, and squadrons of cavalry in array, and "charges, and encounters, and shaking of shields, and "multitude of pikes, and drawing of swords, and glit- "tering of golden ornaments, and harness of all sorts." The prayer "that this apparition might turn for good" was presently answered by the approach of the most startling catastrophe which the Jewish colony had ex- perienced since its return from Babylon, and which yet, with a fine moral sense of a deserved Nemesis, the nobler spirits among them acknowledged to be the just retribution for their crimes. It was after completing his conquest of Egypt that Antiochus, in pursuit at once of his political and religious ambition, seized upon Jerusalem. The terrified population fled before him. They were hewn down in the streets; they were pursued to the roofs of their houses. But that which even more than this widespread massacre thrilled the city with consternation was the sight of the King, in all the pomp of royalty, led by the apostate Menelaus into the sanctuary itself. It was believed by the Greek world that he reached the innermost recess and there found the statue of the founder of the nation—the great lawgiver Moses—with the long flowing beard which tradition assigned to him, and seated on the Egyptian ass, from the time of the Exodus down to the second century of our era the inseparable accompani- ment of the Israelite. With characteristic rapacity he laid hands on the sacred furniture which the wealthy Babylonian Jews had contributed through the hands of Ezra—the golden altar of incense, the golden candle- stick, the table of consecrated bread, and all the lesser ornaments and utensils. The golden candlestick, which was an object of especial interest from its containing the perpetual light, was traditionally believed to have fallen to the share of the renegade High Priest Mene- laus. The great deposits which had escaped the grasp of Heliodorus, and which, but for the national deprav- ity, would, it was thought, have been again defended by celestial champions, were seized by the king kimself. Then came another sudden attack under Apollonius the tax-gatherer, successor of Heliodorus, who took occasion to attack them on their day of weekly rest, scattering them or dragging them off to the slave-mar- ket from the midst of their festivities. It is a strat- egem which occurs so often at this time as to lose its point, but which shows how rigidly since Nehemiah's time the observance of the Sabbath had set in. The rest, both of the seventh day and of the seventh year, had now become a fixed institution, guarded with the utmost tenacity, and carried into the most trivial and, at times, impracticable details. There was a short pause, during which consternation spread throughout the country. In every home there was desolation as if for a personal sorrow. The grief of the women was even more affecting that the indignant sorrow of the men; and showed how completely they shared the misfortunes of their country. The Holy City was transformed into the likeness of a Grecian garrison. The walls that Nehemiah had built with so much care were dismantled; the houses in their neigh- borhood were burnt; another massacre and another cap- tivity followed. The blood ran through the streets and even in the Temple courts. The hill on which had stood the Palace of David was fortified with a separate wall, took the name of "The Height" ("Acra"), and was occupied with the Greek or Grecian party, the more ir- ritating of those who still adhered to their country and their faith because it overlooked the Temple itself. It was regarded as a perpetual tempter, an adversary or devil in stone—as a personal enemy. And over this fortress presided Philip, of rough Phrygian manners, and, more odious than all, the High Priest Menelaus, "who bore a heavy hand over all the citizens, hav- "ing a malicious hatred against his countrymen the "Jews." But the worst was still to come. As soon as the en- tanglements of Antiochus in his Egyptian war allowed him a respite for his Syrian projects he determined on carrying out his fixed plans of a rigid uniformity throughout the land—"that all should be "one people and that every one should hear his laws." There was not a corner of Judæa which was not now invaded by the emissaries of Polytheism, rendered yet more hateful by the assistance received from the renegade Israelites. A special commissioner was set to preside over this forced conversion; it is uncertain whether from Antioch, or, as if to introduce the new worship from its most genuine seat, from Athens. Under him, adopting the existing framework of the Jewish constitu- tion for the purpose, "overseers" (as we have already seen expressed in the Greek original by the word which has passed into "Bishops") were sent through- out the several districts both of Judæa and Sama- ria. The Divinity to whom the Holy Mount of Jeru- salem was to be dedicated was the Father of Gods and men, in whose honor Antiochus had already begun at Athens the stately temple, even of his own age a wonder of the world, of which the magnificent ruins still stand on the banks of the Ilissus—Jupiter Olym- pius. On Mount Gerizim—apparently because the Samaritans gave the new worship a more hospitable welcome—was planted the sanctuary of the patron of hospitality—Jupiter Xenius. The gay Dionysiac festival was also established, and the grave Israelites were compelled to join in the Bacchanalian procession with wreaths of ivy round their heads—sometimes with the mark of the ivy- leaf branded into their skins. The King's own special deity was not of his Grecian ancestry, nut one bor- rowed from Rome—whether the War-God Mars, Father of the Roman people, or Jupiter of Capi- toline Rock, to whom he began to build a splendid temple at Antioch—in either case, filling even the Jews, to whom all these divinities might have been thought equally repugnant, with a new thrill of sorrow, as indicating a disrespect even of the religions of his own race; and introduced a strange and terrible name. "He regarded not the God of his fathers, he "honored the God of forces, a God whom his fathers "knew not"—a God whose temples were fortresses. In every town and village of the country were erected altars, at which the inhabitants were compelled to offer sacrifices in the heathen form, and on the King's birthday to join in the sacrificial feast. The two chief external marks of Judaism—the repose of the Sabbath and the proud badge of ancient civiliza- tion, the rite of circumcision—were strictly for- bidden on pain of death. And at last the crowning misery of all, which sent a shock through the whole community, was the deliberate desecration of the Temple, not only by adapting it to Grecian worship, but by every species of outrage and dishonor. The great gates were burned. The name of the officer who had charge of setting fire to them was known and marked out—Callisthenes. Its smooth and well-kept courts were left to be overgrown by rank vegetation, in the shelter of which, as in the groves of Daphne, the licentious rites of Antioch were carried on. And now came the culminating horror. It was the 23d of the month of Mareschvan (November) that the enclosure was broken between the outer and inner court; in after days the breaches were pointed out in thirteen places. On the 15th of the next month (Chisleu—December) a small Grecian altar was planted on the huge platform of the altar of Zerubbabel in honor of the Olympian Jupiter. On the 25th the profanation was consum- mated by introducing a herd of swine and slaughtering them in the sacred precincts. One huge sow was chosen from the rest. Her blood was poured on the altar be- fore the Temple and on the Holy of Holies within. A mess of broth was prepared from he flesh, and sprinkled on the copies of the Law. This was the "abomination "of desolation"—the horror which made the whole place a desert. From that moment the daily offerings ceased, the perpetual light of the great candlestick was extinguished—the faithful Israelites fled from the pre- cincts. When, in the last great pollution of Jerusalem under the Romans, a like desecration was attempted, no other words could be found more solemn than those already used in regard to Syrian distress. But the persecution was not confined to the extirpation of the national worship. Every Jew was constrained to con- form to the new system. The children were no longer to receive the initiatory rite of circumcision. The swine's flesh was forced into the mouths of the reluct- ant worshippers, who were compelled to offer the un- clean animal on altars erected at very door and in every street. The books of the Law, multiplied and treasured with so much care from the days of Ezra, were burnt. Many assisted and bowed before the oppressor. One example was long held in horror, which shows that there were some who welcomed the intrusion with delight. There was a daughter of the priestly order of Bilgah, Miriam, who had married a Syrian officer, and with him entered the temple, and, as they approached the altar, she struck the altar with her shoe, exclaim- ing, "Thou insatiable wolf, how much longer art thou "to consume the wealth of Israel, though thou canst "not help them in their hour of need?" It was the remembrance of the rapacity of her family, so it was said, that drove her into this fierce reaction. When the worship was restored, the disgrace which she had brought on the order was perpetuated, and they alone of the priestly courses had no separate store-room, or separate rings for their victims. But others dared the worst rather than submit. Some con- cealed themselves in the huge caverns of the neigh- boring hills, and were suffocated by fires lighted at the mouth. Two mothers were hanged on the wall, with their dead babies at their breasts, whom they had circumcised. A venerable scribe of ninety years of age, Eleazar, steadily refused to retain the hated swine's flesh in his mouth; stripped of his clothes, but, as the latest version finally expresses it, wrapped in the dig- nity of old age and piety, like a fine athlete in the Gre- cian games, he walked boldly to the rack, on which he was scourged to death. "I will show myself such "an one as my age requireth, and leave a notable ex- "ample to such as be young to die willingly and cour- "ageously for the honorable and holy laws." Most memorable was the slow torture by which the mother and her seven sons expired. It was told in a narrative couched, like the martyrologies of Christian times, in exaggerated language, and disfiguring the noble pro- testations of the sufferers by the invocations of curses on the persecutors, but still forcibly expressing the liv- ing testimony of conscience against the interference of power, the triumph of the spirit over outward suffering. The very implements of torture are the same which have lived on through all the centuries in which theo- logical hatred and insane cruelty have overborne the natural affections of the human heart. The rack, the wheel, the scourge, the flame, have been handed on from Antiochus to Diocletian, to the Council of Con- stance, to Philip II., to Calvin, to Louis XIV. These are the first of the noble army of martyrs to whom history has given a voice. "Vixere fortes ante "Agamemnona." Those who were slain by Jezebel or Manasseh may have nourished in their deaths a curage as high and a faith as firm. But they passed to their reward in silence. In the earlier account even those who fell under the tyranny of Antiochus, their end is described with a severe brevity, which for solemn impressiveness leaves nothing to be desired, "So "then they died." But the later account places in the mouths of the sufferers the words destined to animate the long succession of the victims of religious intoler- ance, whether heathen against Christian, Christian against Jew, Catholic against Protestant, Protestant against Protestant. "What wouldst thou ask or learn? "We are ready to die rather than transgress the laws "of our fathers. It is manifest unto the Lord that hath "the holy knowledge that whereas I might have been "delivered from death, I now endure grievous pains "in body, but in soul I am well content to suffer these "things because I fear Him." In this sense Eleazar was justly honored in the ancient Church as the Proto- Martyr. The seven brothers were, by a bold fiction of ecclesiastical law, entitled "Christian Martyrs"— Christianum nomen, postea divulgatum, factis anteces- serunt. In this terrible crisis it is not surprising that what ever sparks of the spirit of the Psalmist and the Prophet still lingered should once more have been evoked from the depths of the national heart. There are two Psalms at least—the 74th and the 79th—which can hardly be the expression of any period but this. They describe with passionate grief the details of the profanation of the sanctuary, the gates in flames, the savage soldiers hewing down the delicate carved work, the axe and hatchet, like woodmen in a forest, the roar of the irreverent multitude, the erec- tion of the heathen emblems; they sigh over the in- dignity of the corpses slain in the successive massacres, left outside of the walls of the city to be devoured by vulture and jackal—they look in vain for a Prophet to arise—they console themselves with the recollection of the overthrow of he huge monsters of the earlier empires, and with the hope that this crisis will pass in like manner. Another burst of anguish was in the eighteen Psalms ascribed to Solomon, but probably of this epoch. In them we see the battering-ram beating down the walls, the proud heathens stalking through the Temple courts, not so much as taking off their shoes; we hear the bitter curses on those who endeavor to please men, and who dissemble their own convictions; we see those who frequented the syna- gogues of some anointed of the Lord who should, like David, deliver them from their enemies. But there was a yet more important addition to the sacred literature of this period. Even those who would place the composition of the Book of Daniel at an earlier time will not deny that this was the exact date—to be measured almost by the year and the month—when as a whole or piecemeal it made its appearance and significance felt throughout the suffering nation. "Antiochus was on his way "northward from Egypt. The complete suppression "of the Temple sacrifices might then have lasted a "twelvemonth, and everything had reached that state "of extreme tension when the ancient religion upon "its sacred soil must either disappear from view com- "pletely for long ages, or must rise in fresh strength "and outward power against enemies thus immoder- "ately embittered. It was at this crisis, in the sultry "heat of an age thus frightfully oppressive, that this "book appeared with its sword-edge utterance, its "piercing exhortation to endure in the face of the despot, "and its promise, full of Divine joy, of near and sure "salvation. No dew of heaven could fall with more "refreshing coolness on the parched ground, no spark "from above alight with a more kindling power on the "surface so long heated with a hidden glow. With "winged brevity the book gives a complete survey of "the history of the kingdom of God upon earth, show- "ing the relations which it had hitherto sustained in "Israel to the successive great heathen empires of the "Chaldæan, the Medo-Persians, and Greeks,—in a word, "towards the heathenism which ruled the world; and "with the finest perception it describes the nature "and individual career of Antiochus Epiphanes and his "immediate predecessors so far as was possible in view "of the great events which had just occurred. Rarely "does it happen that a book appears as this did, in "the very crisis of the times, and in a form most "suited to such an age, artificially reserved, close and "severe, and yet shedding so clear a light through "obscurity., and so marvellously captivating. It was "natural that it should soon achieve a success entirely "corresponding to its inner truth and glory. And "so, for the last time in the literature of the Old Tes- "tament, we have in this book an example of a work "which, having sprung from the deepest necessities of "the noblest impulses of the age, can render to that "age the purest service; and which by the develop- "ment of events immediately after, receives with such "power the stamp of Divine witness that it subse- "quently attains imperishable sanctity." Whether the narrative of the faithful Israelites in the court of Nebuchadnezzar and of Darius had been handed down from the Exile, or whether they were then produced for the first time, the practical result must have been the same. As the seven sons are the first example of the heroic testimony of martyrs' words, so the narrative of the Three Children in the Fire and of Daniel in the Lions' Den is the first glori- fication, the first canonization, so to speak, of the martyr spirit. And accordingly at this time we first find them cited as encouragements and consolations. 
from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. II: From The Captivity To The Christian Era, by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, 1879; pp. 315 - 337.
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2019.09.25 16:50 blessedaretheneet Am I misanthropic, antisocial, introverted, or just shy?

I don't know that I belong here; so forgive me if I'm intruding clumsily into someplace I shouldn't be. I'm trying to navigate my way into “finding myself,” I guess, and that's resulted in exploring a lot of different places. So, I'm a 23m unemployed, friendless, virgin, college drop-out/loser, still living in my parents' basement. I'd like to be better than I am … but I don't want to transform into one of the mass, faceless, unlikable jerks I see out there functioning as normal, productive members of society. My parents have “joking” called me misanthropic over the way I antisocially shelter myself away most of the time and often grumble/complain about being generally unhappy with modern society.
I'm not sure that I'm misanthropic; I can coexist with people (at least I want to theoretically be able to do so).
What I cannot easily do is endure the indifferent gaze – the long, fixed stare of alienation – that transforms and imprisons me into becoming the very thing other people want and expect me to be. It is unacceptable to others that I live in freedom: doing what I chose to do (or not do) and being who I chose to become. There are expectations, there are assumptions, there are preconceptions: everyone has an idea of who and what everyone else ought to be … these prejudicial biases start off as nothing but illusions and delusions, until they creep into your own head and start re-shaping the very core of your being. Suddenly, I'm no longer free to be me! Now that I know what you of expect of me, those mental assumptions are living rent free in my head. I can try to fight them, but ultimately you've already won half the battle just by judging me. It's Belshazzar's Feast, and when I hear your supposedly innocent observations I cannot help but also see the writing on the wall:
Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin
You've numbered the days of my blissful, solitary freedom and brought it all (swiftly) to an end. I am judged, weighed, and found lacking worth (from your subjective point of view). Thus, the independence of thought and freedom of ego I had enjoyed in silence, lonely solitude is forfeit, and my time and energy is to be confiscated and surrendered to conventional society, to do as they see fit with it. Your expectations insidiously transmute the fiber of my being, wracking me with guilt both for failing to live up to your preconceived assumptions and for daring to struggle against the sense of shame and social disgrace you've imposed upon me. In the end, I lost the battle just by showing up and silently listening to you speak.
I can coexist with people. What I cannot easily do is listen to their judging words. I'm far too thin-skinned to function in civilized society. Does this make me misanthropic? … or does this simply mean I've already taken the first step towards becoming one of the judgmental jerks I've always despised? Am I guilty of being unfairly prejudicial towards others, without properly getting to know them first? Have I gazed too long into Nietzsche's figurative abyss and become the very opinionated monster I sought to fight in the first place?
I am my own worst enemy, as the melancholy Dane would say, “Hoist with my own petard.” I shun people, pushing them away. I fear friendship. I run from affection. I flee potential intimacy … and then comes the rending of garments, the weeping and gnashing of teeth. I lament my lonely fate, wallowing in the consternation and worry of indulgent self-pity. I'm a moody wretch of my own design. Does that make me misanthropic? Or just another nervous, angst-ridden, dumb kid with too much time on his hands (and a penchant for overly dramatic existential dread)?
I am stupid … I am young … I am ignorant … and I readily admit: I've far more questions than answers regarding who I am and where/how I fit into the world. I really don't know who I even want to be, much less how I honestly feel about other people. Is it hate or fear? And is there even a measurable difference? Bottom line: I don't think I like the way I feel about people, and I know I don't like the person I have become. And those facts both scare and disgust me. I need to somehow grow up. Is this misanthropy, or is this the result of any number of other emotional inadequacies and psychological shortcomings I've inflicted upon myself?
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2019.08.11 12:49 MarleyEngvall tabula smaragdina has been created

By James Churchward THE CHILDREN OF MU CHAPTER IX EGYPT It is not my intention to write a history of Egypt. Many histories of Egypt have already been written, enough to fill a library by themselves. My sole object in this work is: First, to show by records, not theories, who the original Egyptians were. Second, to show that the original settlers in Egypt were the children of Mu and came directly from Mu, the Motherland, to Egypt. This will unravel the apparent mystery encountered by ethnologists as to the origin of the Egyptians and show the reason why, from the beginning of the Egyptian history, the Egyptians have been found to have been a highly civilized, cultured people. Many Egyptologists find enigmas concerning the two Egyptian religious cults. These apparent enigmas are brushed aside when it is known in what way Egypt was first peopled and by whom. Egyptologists have gone far astray in their many theories and deductions on many points simply because they have not understood the symbology of the ancients and their symbolical writings, nor could they comprehend the esoteric meanings of these writings. For this they cannot be blame, for no key has been found and no school existed where they could be learned. These secrets, for many hundreds of years at least, have been known only to a very few old, Oriental sages. And these old sages spend their lives in their temples and monasteries, seldom coming in contact with the outer world. When they have done so, the information given by them is so unorthodox to present theories that the recipients have looked upon it as a pack of nonsense. Egypt was colonized by two sets of people, commencing at two separate and distinct parts. One set coming to Lower Egypt from the West, the other set coming to Upper Egypt from the East. The colonists coming from the West made their first settlement at Sais on the Nile Delta and were anciently known as the Nile Colony. The colonists coming from the East made settlements on the East Coast of Africa from Cape Guardefui to the head of the Red Sea. In India I find the name Maioo given as the name of this colony, but whether it included all of the territory heretofore mentioned, or only a part near Suakin on the Red Sea, I cannot say. Maioo was their Capital City, at least at the time of the writing of the Indian records, and it would seem to have been the name of the district as well. From the coast they worked back until they came to the Nile. Here they extended themselves both up and down. Eventually, the Upper Egyptians met the Lower Egyptians on the Nile, thus forming another complete chain of man around the earth. About ten thousand years after the first settlement was made at Sais, war broke out between the people of Upper Egypt and the people of Lower Egypt, resulting in the overthrow of the Lower Egyptians. The two were then joined and thereafter formed one empire. I will now go back and trace the Upper Egyptians to their colony from India. THE MAIOO COLONY.——After the Babylonian Colony was formed, how long afterwards is not known, the Nagas from India took another step to the West. From India they went to northeast Africa. They made settle- ments in the Gulf of Aden and at different points on the West Coast of the Red Sea. Both Indian and Egyptian records speak of their settlement at Maioo in Nubia, Upper Egypt. Maioo was on the Red Sea near where the modern town of Suakin is situated. The colonization took place somewhere in the neighborhood of 15,000 years ago. At that time the country was flat, for up to this time the African mountains had not been raised. It is also doubtful if any of the present desert lands then existed in this part of the earth. Later the settlers are found to have worked their way inland as far as the headwaters of the Nile, namely, to the White and Blue Niles. This Naga settlement grew flourished, and became very powerful. Eventually, they made war on the Malays, the Lower Egyptians, conquered them and turned the two Egypts into one Empire. Mena or Menes was the first dynastic king to reign over both Upper and Lower Egypt and with his appearance on the historical stage of Egypt, the title of "King of the North and South was adopted. The origin of the Upper Egyptians is easily traced by their principal symbol of the Deity, the Sun, which is verified by written records in both India and Egypt. The well-known Egyptian winged solar disk, with its pair of serpents, was introduced into Lower Egypt by the Upper Egyptians. The Egyptian winged circle is the only one among the many designs of this symbol found in all ancient countries, that has a serpent in the design. This is not accidental, nor was it added for the sake of artistry. It was their expression of reverence for the Creator, and to retain the memory that in their olden times and mother country, they used principally the symbol Naga, the serpent, to symbolize the Deity as Creator. In this design the Sun is made the principal symbol, being placed as the central figure in the design. While the Sun became their most sacred symbol of the Deity, the Serpent as the Creator came next. Beyond these two, no other of the many symbols of the Deity are used without their being shown as secondary, symbolizing attributes. Even the crown of the king was adorned with the serpent as the symbol of the Creator. The Sun was not used in the crown because the Sun was the Infinite, the Almighty; thus to have used the Sun would have been sacrilege. Thus we see the reflection of India in Egypt. These people came from India and retained that which reminded them of India. Philostratus, in "Life of Tyana," page 146, says: "The first Egyptians were a colony from India." Valmiki, the Hindu sage-historian, whose works were written from the records of the Rishi Temple at Ayhodia, says: "The Mayas from India established a colony in Egypt, giving it the name of Maioo. Records state that Narana, the High Priest of the Temple, read the records to Valmiki and Valmiki wrote them from his dictation. Valmiki in "Ramayana," Vol I, page 342, Fauche's translation, reads: "The Naacals first established them- selves in the Deccan, India, and from there carried their religion and learning to the colonies of Babylonia and Egypt." Brunsen, in "Egypt's Place in World's History," Vol. 4, page 58, says: "The latest date at which commencement of Egyptian life, the migration from the Euphrates district, can have taken place was 9850 B. C." I cannot imagine Brunsen saying that a migration from the Euphrates Valley to Egypt took place unless he had found some sort of record to warrant it. This leaves an open question. Did his record refer to Oman and did he include this as a part of the Euphrates district, or did some of the Akkadians actually join the companies going to Egypt from Oman or Akkad? Personally, I have never come across any records stating that the Akkadians took any part in the colonization of Egypt from India, but I have not seen all the records there are by a very long way. Yet another possibility remains: When the Mayas first commenced to go to Egypt from India, Akkad may have been their supply station en route. Brunsen may have come across some old record saying that the colonists have left Akkad for Egypt, thereby inferring that the colonists were Akkadians, not Hindus. Valmiki's record stating that the Mayas from India formed a colony in Egypt, is not the only Hindu record stating the fact. There are many, but Valmiki's being a temple record, I have looked upon it as being all that is necessary from India with the corroboration of Brunsen and Philostratus. The Hindu temple records distinctly state that the Egyptian Colony was transformed from India and not the Euphrates Valley. Philostratus corroborates it. Now I will go to Egypt and take up the other end of the line. There is no Maioo on the Egyptian map today, so we must hunt up some old Egyptian records; first, to find out if ever there was a Maioo in Egypt, and secondly, to find out its exact location. Brugsch Bey, considered one of the most reliable authorities on ancient Egypt, in his "History of Egypt under the Pharaohs," Vol. 2, pages 78 and 174 says: "The name Maioo is comprised in the list of lands conquered by Thotmes III. . . . The name Maioo is found in a list of lands in a sepulchral chamber in Nubia." This is a perfect confirmation by Egyptian history of Valmiki's record. Nubia lies in Upper Egypt on the west coast of the Red Sea. Nubia commences a little north of the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. Suakin is one of the present-day seaports of Nubia. Some Egyptologists have tried to get away with the raw proposition that the original Egyptian came from the Euphrates Valley, crossed the Assyrian Desert, entered Lower Egypt, and from there worked up to the White and Blue Niles, then split up and formed two empires. They have not a record or legend to warrant them in putting forward such an absurd statement. Such a contention as crossing a waterless desert, thus selecting the most physically impossible route when a very easy, safe, natural water route lay before them, is the top notch of absurdity. Did not Berosus say that the people first met by the Semitics on the Euphrates were "half fish and half human," and does not Valmiki tell us that "the Mayas were mighty navigators whose ships went from the eastern to the western oceans and from the northern to the southern seas"? Yet these were the men who preferred to travel over a waterless desert twice the distance they would have had to go by water. By the water route they would have saved hundreds of miles of travel, they would have been in sight of land all the way, and could reach their destination without a single obstruction. If any reader will take a map and plot out the two routes, the result will be more convincing than any pen could write. Again, no sane being could imagine colonists leaving the fertile lands of the Nile Delta when they got there, to pound their way through trackless deserts to where they knew not. The foregoing is the story of Upper Egypt. I shall now proceed to show by various records who the Lower Egyptians were and where they came from. The history of Lower Egypt is so interwoven with the history of Atlantis that nearly all known records refer to both, so I am forced to use over again many of the records I used for Atlantis. It is reiteration, I know, but I think the subject justifies it and hope my readers will look at t in the same light. One loses the continuity of a subject when he has constantly to be turning back to previous pages.. THE NILE COLONY.——The Nile Colony was the original name of Lower Egypt. It was started at Sais on the Nile Delta by Mayas, coming from Atlantis under the leadership of Thoth about 16,000 years ago. The Nile Delta appears to have been neglected by the early Mediterranean settlers, as geological phenomena show that Asia Minor, the Balkan Peninsula and islands, and the Caucasian Plains were occupied many thousands of years before 14,000 B. C. At that time the lower end of the Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor and the Caucasian Plains were ideal lands for settlers, rich soil and well watered, with an ideal climate. The Nile Delta to them then, apparently, appeared to be only a hot, sandy country. Therefore, it may be rightfully assumed that it could only have been a scarcity of land for the ever increasing number of settlers or some untoward event that took the first settlers there. Records will tell, we need not theorize. Schliemann: A tablet found in Maycarne, Crete, by Schliemann says, "The Egyptians descended from Misar. Misar was the child of Thoth, the god of history. Thoth was the emigrated son of a priest of Atlantis. He built the first temple at Sais and there taught the wisdom of his native land." Troano Manuscript: Fleeing from the wrath of her brother Aac, Queen Moo directed her course towards the rising sun and at last reached the Maya settlement which had recently been established on the banks of the Nile. There she met Thoth, the founder, who became her friend and preceptor in religious matters." Egyptian Papyrus, time of Pharaoh Sent, 2nd Dynasty: "Pharaoh Sent sent out an expedition to the west in search of traces of Atlantis from whence 3350 years before the Egyptians arrived carrying with themselves all the wisdom of their native land." Rawlinson: "Origin of nations," page 13: "The Egyp- tians themselves claimed that their ancestors were strangers who in very remote times settled on the banks of the Nile." Herdotus: "The Egyptian boasted that their ancestors in the lands of the West, were the oldest men on earth." Diodorus: "History," Vol 1, page 50: "The Egyptians themselves claimed that their ancestors were strangers who in very remote times settled on the banks of the Nile, bringing with themselves the civilization of their mother country, the art of writing and a polished language. They had come from the direction of the Setting Sun and that they were the most ancient of men." Teiss: "A Miracle of Stone," page 40: "The Egyptians came from Kuiland, the country of the gods in the west." Plutarch: "Life of Solon": "When Solon visited Egypt Souchis, a priest of Sais, and Psenophis, a priest of Heliopolis, told him that 9000 years since, the relations of the Egyptians with the Lands of the West had been interrupted because of the mud that had made the sea impassable after the destruction of Atlantis by earthquakes and the country beyond by floods." Orpheus: "Egypt, the daughter of Poseidon" (Atlantis). Lepsius: Lepsius found the same sacred symbols among the ceremonials of the Egyptians as he found in the ceremonies of the American Mayas. The foregoing is evidence that: The first Egyptians were Mayas; the first settlers in Lower Egypt came from Atlantis; the first settlers in Upper Egypt came from India; subsequently both colonies were augmented by colonists from the Motherland via India and Mayax; that the inhabitants of Mu were the first men on earth; that Atlantis was destroyed by earthquakes and submerged; that America was destroyed and made impass- able and uninhabitable for a long time by cataclysms; that in Egypt Mu, the Motherland, was also called the Lands of the West and Kui Land; that Mu, some- times called the Lands of the West and Kui Land, did once exist and was the original habitat of Man; that Egypt was once a colony of Mu and after Mu went down, became an Empire. Osborn: "In Egypt it is notorious that there is no indication of an early savagery. All authorities agree that however far we go back we find in Egypt no rude, uncivilized time out of which civilization is developed. The reasonable inference from these facts appears to be that the first settlers in Egypt were a company of persons in a high state of civilization, but through some strange anomaly in the history of man they had been deprived of a great part of their language, and the entire written system which had formerly been the means and vehicle of their civilization." I am afraid that when Osborn penned the foregoing, he was depending more on imagination than research such as his subject deserves. Had he read the works of the Greek philosopher, Diodorus, he would have found before he turned the fiftieth page that his "reasonable inferences" were without foundation, for the Egyptians brought a written language and maintained it throughout Egyptian history. The sixty-fourth chapter of the Book of the Dead was written by Thoth at the commencement of Egyptian history. The sixty-fourth chapter of the Book of the Dead was written by Thoth at the commencement of Egyptian history. The hieratic alphabet of the Egyptians is given on page 26. Down to a few hundred years B. C. many of these letters will be found retained in all of their subsequent symbolic alphabets. They permeate the writings of the Book of the Dead. Osiris. Egyptologists differ widely concerning who and what Osiris was. Many claim he was a myth; others that he was simply a symbol; while others declare he was a living man. Some Egyptologists assert that he was a king somewhere. The Egyptians themselves affirm that he once lived and claim various places in Egypt as his birthplace thus showing that not one of them knows anything beyond the fact that he was at the head of the Triune of Lower Egypt. Osiris was a man and his history has been recorded by the Naacals. Their writings say: "Osiris was born in manhood, he left Atlantis and went to the Motherland to study in her colleges. He entered a Naacal college where he studied and remained until he became a Master and a Holy Brother. He then returned to Atlantis and there purged religion of the extravagances and excesses which had crept into it. He then became the head of the Atlantian Church, a position which he held through a long life. The people so loved him for his gentleness and gentle teachings that they wanted to dethrone the King and place Osiris on the throne. This he would not permit and positively refused to allow such a thing to be talked about." When Osiris died he was deified and religion called after him, just as our religion today is called the Christian religion after the teachings of Christ. There is no mention in the Naacal writings as to the cause of the death of Osiris. The Egyptians have their own tale. According to them, the end of Osiris was a tragedy. Osiris, according to the Egyptians, was murdered by a brother called Set. Set became frantically jealous of his brother Osiris on account of the great love of the people for Osiris, which ended in Set murdering him. About ten thousand years after the time of Thoth, the vile, unscrupulous Egyptian priesthood, to bring fear and dread into the hearts of the people and so enslave them for their priestly purposes, turned Set into the devil of today. Before a devil was invented by the Egyptians, a devil was unknown. Before that it was a fight between the Soul or Divine Force and the material affinities for the control of man's mind and, through his mind, his bodily actions. The Soul's endeavor was to raise the material man to a higher plane. This the material affinities fought against and tried to keep him down to their own level. It would appear quite remarkable that the teachings of Osiris, Gautama and Jesus should have been so very alike in wording. In many cases they are absolutely identical word for word. And yet, when one stops to think, it is not so remarkable because they all preached and explained the first religion of man as told in the Sacred Inspired Writings of Mu, the Motherland. The Egyptians affirmed that Osiris was born in Egypt which is a perfect myth as the following shows: Thoth was the founder of Lower Egypt. He built the first temple at Sais and there taught Osirian religion as he brought it from Atlantis. This is verified in the Book of the Dead. Why the Egyptians assigned Osiris to the charge of Amenti does not appear clear except that it was to carry out a symbolism. Isis. Isis is shown in the Triune godhead of Lower Egypt as the sister-wife of Osiris. What was she? Was she once a living woman or a symbol only? Without question she was a symbol only, carrying out a conception that had come down from the very beginning of man's teachings. In the Egyptian religion, Isis was the symbol representing nature, and nature was the productive principle of the Creator—— the female principle. So many attributes were assigned to ' her by the Egyptians that she really appears as the feminine attribute symbol of the Creator. She represented the creation of all things. Thus she appears as the great attribute of creation, the executrix of the Creator's commands. I have never seen her depicted in mummy form. I find that those who have actually lived are often depicted as mummies, and occasionally as a god with a special head telling who he was. That Isis was assigned as the wife of Osiris is simply a symbolism. An old Egyptian writing says: "Isis can never die although from age to age her vestments may change." In other words, she may be known under different names among different peoples and ages. I think Rider Haggard explains the esoteric meaning of Isis better than any other man who has written about her. In one of his works he depicts a scene in front of the Sphinx, after the overthrow of the Egyptians by the Persians. The Egyptian gods are standing in front of the Sphinx saying: "We bid thee farewell, Mother Egypt, our shelter for thousands upon thousands of years. Out of thy mud we were created, into thy mud we return again." Sphinx: "Tell me who gave you these monstrous shapes and who named ye gods?" The Gods: "The priests gave them to us and the priests named us gods. Now the priests are slain and we perish with the priests because we are but gods made out of thy mud, O Egypt." Isis appears: "Behold me. I am thy lost spirit, but thou, O Egypt, did not create me, for I created thee by a divine command. I am she whom men know as Isis here upon the Nile, but whom all the world and all the worlds beyond the world know as nature, the visible garment of the Almighty God. Yet I remain and thou remainest, O Egypt. Aye, though we be called by many names in the infinite days to come; as we have been called in the infinite days that are gone, ever shall we remain." Rider Haggard does not say whether he took his speech from some ancient document or not. Without doubt he had a good foundation for it. One very prominent point stands boldly out, where Isis says "by divine command." These are the identical words used in the Sacred Inspired Writings of the Motherland referring to Creation, as shown in my last work, The Lost Continent of Mu. Isis was the symbol of the Moon. The Moon was her head ornament during all religious ceremonies. The Moon was the ancient symbol for the feminine principle of the Creator. Therefore, His productive principle, that principle which commanded that living things should appear. Niven's Mexican Stone Tablet, No. 150 (½ Size). Found 4½ miles N. W. of Mexico City at a depth below the surface of 17½ feet. This tablet is over 12,000 years old. Deciphering and translation: The upper face represents the Sun as the male principle of the Creator, confirmed by His symbol in either side, a circle with a dot in the center. The lower face that of the Moon, the symbol of the female principle of the Creator, also confirmed by two circles with dots in their centers. The four box cartouches contain writings in the ancient temple numerical esoteric writing. The Creator created one which became two. The two produced three. From these three all mankind descended. Corroborated by repetition. Legend, The Creator made man. Then divided him into two principles——male and female. The two produced three, and from these three all mankind descended. I find the same conception prevailed among the Hindus, the Incas of Peru and the Mayas. Also the people who carved the Mexican Stone Tablets over 12,000 years ago. Their legend runs: "The Moon was the sister-wife of the Sun." Thus making both the Sun and Moon symbols of the Creator, but as His principles. The symbolism dates far back, back beyond the Egyptians and back beyond the writers of the Mexican Stone Tablets. It originates in the Sacred Inspired Writings more than 70,000 years ago and was then used to teach early man that the Deity was dual in Creation. (Lahun, Fig. 4.) Horus. Horus was the third of the Lower Egyptian Triune Godhead. He was the son of Osiris and his sister wife Isis. From some of the Egyptian writings it is made to appear that Horus was once a living man. In others he appears as one of the symbols of the Sun——Ra. I have found nothing about their Isis or Horus in the Naacal writings, so presume that they were Egyptian symbols only. The head of the Lower Egyptian Church was called the Horus, just as today the head of the Catholic Church is called the Pope. To me it appears that Horus being a symbol of the Sun and the Sun the symbol of the Deity, Horus was second-handedly the religious symbol of the Deity. Early Egypt was ruled by the Church before it became a kingdom. Many Egyptologists have endowed Horus with a grand old age. He commenced life at the time of Osiris 22,000 years ago and kept up his health and strength down to the time of Menes 5000 years ago. A grand old age of 17,000 years. This goes the Hindu mistranslation about Rama one better. Rama lasted only 10,000 years. Methuselah was such a youngster he was never in their class. Whether the first Horus was a living man or only a symbol I am not prepared to say. There is the possibility that the first Horus was the son of Osiris, and at the death of Osiris became the Hieratic head of the Atlantian Church——this I cannot say. Herodotus, "History," Lib. 11-144: "Horus was the Hieratic head of Egypt before King Menes commenced to reign. Manetho, the Egyptian priest-historian: "The reign of the sages in Egypt was ten thousand years. The sages were the Hieratic heads." In the writings of Manetho there are references to six different Horuses as Hieratic heads. In certain ceremonies the Eyptians substituted Horus for Ra, thus showing that Horus was the symbol of the Sun. In the Motherland the Hieratic head assumed the title of Ra Mu as the representative of the Deity in religious matters. So later in Egypt the Hieratic head assumed the title of Horus. From the commencement of Egyptian history, and apparently for thousands of years, Egypt was governed by the Church with a Horus. The last Horus as the Hieratic head of religion in Lower Egypt was the Horus that immediately preceded King Menes, according to Manetho. When Upper and Lower Egypt were united under King Menes, there were two forms of religion involved: in Upper Egypt the Sun was the most sacred symbol, in Lower Egypt it was the Triune with Osiris heading it. For two thousand years there was a bitter fight between two priesthoods, each one trying to proselyte the other. Even the Kings were affected, some taking sides with the priesthood of Upper Egypt, others with the priesthood of Lower Egypt. These details are to be found in most histories of Egypt. THE EGYPTIAN PRIESTHOOD.——I have previously stated that the greed and avarice of the Egyptian priest- hood led them into committing the most horrible crimes recorded in man's history. It reached its climax after the priesthood of Amon had amassed immeasurable wealth. This wealth gave them the dominant power of the land which wealth always does, ans as is always the case when a set of individuals gain control of the wealth of a country, it is invariably ended in the downfall of that country. There is not a single exception to this rule to be found in history. Even the Egyptian kings became weak tools in the hands of the Priests of Amon so that ultimately their priestly aspirations were gained, for they usurped the throne itself. On the face of things this did not alter much; for before it was the King-High Priest, now it became the High Priest-King. After usurping the throne their priestly power soon came to an end, for the army rebelled against the priesthood and the Priests of Amon were obliged to flee from Egypt to Ethiopia. It has been written that the Egyptian priesthood never entrusted their religious secrets or Sacred Mysteries to anyone outside of their own fraternity. This is not strictly true as many of the Greek philosophers were entrusted with the Egyptian religious secrets, among them being: Solon, Thales, Pythagoras, Herodotus, Eumolphus, Plato, Orpheus, and possibly others as well. FIRST EGYPTIAN TEMPLE.——The first Egyptian temple was built at Sais 16,000 years ago. The age is well authenticated as it was built by Thoth at the commence- ment of Egyptian history. This is confirmed by a tablet dug up by Schliemann at Maycarne, Crete. This tablet states that: "The first Egyptians were Atlanteans headed by Thoth, the God of History. They settled on the banks of the Nile at Sais where he built the first temple." The discovery of this tablet was not reported at the time except to his grandson, Dr. Paul Schliemann, who subsequently undertook the unearthing of the Sais temple. The following is his report on what he found: "We have been excavating the ruins of the ancient temple at Sais, in Egypt, for five month. Among many other interesting archaeological discoveries we have found a burial chamber of the musical celebrities of that era. here in one of the catacombs, supposed to be from the time of the 3rd Dynasty, we found a huge casket of stone and with it a most unusual collection of musical in- struments. It contains also a papyrus that has not been deciphered yet but I am of the opinion that it is a peculiar kind of Egyptian musical writing unknown to us. The heiroglyphic inscription on the Sarcophagus says that the musical instruments belonged to the orchestra of the Temple of Sais, and were used for the crowning celebration of Pharaoh Amen-emhat I. Among the instruments that we discovered, there were some that produced such sounds as, for instance, the roar of the wind, the waves, and songs of certain birds, and various mysterious voices of nature. "Our music at least has not reached that degree of development. It is only the celebrated Finn——Jean Sibellius——who has made slight attempts at making his latest compositions imitate the voice of nature. But for the Egyptian composers this was a vital issue of their work. There is a huge wood trumpet among the discovered instruments of Sais which produces the weird sound of an angry roaring lion; on the other hand their flute has produced the sweetest tones I have ever listened to. It has an enchanting timbre, and thrills the listener with magic rapture, even if one plays but a single tone in it. I can imagine how that instrument could really make an audience wild with enthusiasm if it were played by a virtuoso. "Most of the instruments of an old Egyptian orchestra were of wood and porcelain. There is only one horn of brass like metal. The strings of their harps proved to be made of a fiber absolutely unknown today. It is exceedingly thin and strong and has almost the appearance of silver wire. But then again there are strings which our chemical experts declare to have been spun from human hair. Thus the strings of the highest notes of an Egyptian violin are made of exceedingly long hair taken from the head of some beauty of that age. An orchestra of sixty-five instruments and a chorus of eighty singers were required to perform the majestic anthem of the Sun. The instrument that seems to figure as the most important piece of the orchestra produces a hollow monotonous tone of haunting effect. The instrument is made out of a bleached human skull, the cavity of which has been made like an artificial throat of some supernatural monster. It is evident that this instru- ment produced a register of unmemorable sounds, but it required a musician who knew the secret of his instrument, therefore it played a unique rôle in the orchestra. An inscription on the small bone says that it contained not only the sounds of other instruments, but that also of the human voice. It was called the dead throat. Thus my discovery is first in archeological records that gives such striking information of the music of the most remote periods. It will throw a new light on the ancient art, and serve as the most powerful impetus to all composers, musicians and singers of this age by suggesting a new style and form of musical expression. "The Egyptians carried the culture of Atlantis to their colony on the shores of the Nile. I have found in my various excavations that the older Egypt was, the more it was cultured. The nation simply degenerated after Atlantis vanished." In the body of my work I have called attention to the fact that after the sinking of the Motherland Mu, all civilizations throughout the world either degenerated or came to a standstill, not only in Egypt, but all others, including India. WHO WERE THE ETHIOPIANS?——The origin of the Ethiopians has ever been a mystery to ethnologists. There are traditions in Southern India that: "In ages gone by companies of Tamils took their ships and sailed towards the setting sun. They arrived at a great land and settled there, prospered and became great." If I could obtain some of their language and writing, I could tell at once whether they were Tamils. 
from The Children of Mu, by James Churchward. Copyright 1931 by James Churchward. Paperback Library Edition, First Printing: February 1968. Paperback Library Inc., New York, N.Y.; pp. 124—140.
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I. The Origin of Man
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2019.08.04 09:06 anti-ZOG-sci-fry Demons, Demigods & Other Metaphysical Detritus

Demons, Demigods & Other Metaphysical Detritus
by Jayge 8^J
Genesis paraphrased: In the beginning was the Tao, and the Tao was with Nature, and the Tao was Nature's Source. Nature was Female since all Life emanates from Her. Man's low status long chafed at his Ego. Ne'er-do-wells wandered the deserts and against sane reason declared that Males should manage things. Then Man said, "Let Us make Gods in Our Image, according to Our Likeness; greater Male and lesser Female; and let Them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the Earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the Earth." Man blessed Them and said, "Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the Earth and subdue it." Man knew what He had made and it was very good for Him. HE > I [sic]
Why do people still believe in myriad ghosts, spirits, luck, curses, blessings, talismans, daily horoscopes, angels, demons, demigods, nā ʻaumākua, séances, saviors, sacred texts, miracles, holy water, transubstantiation, papal infallibility, junk bonds, penny stocks, pyramid schemes, derivatives, collateralized debt obligations, multi-level marketing, flat Earth, hollow Earth, Bigfoot, Tarot, Kabbalah, Santa Claus, Easter Bunny, Tooth Fairy, stigmata, magic, Trinity, UFOs and God? Excuses can be almost convincing, if one buys into their rationale: 'tradition,' 'makes me feel good,' 'my bible tells me so,' or my current favorite, 'in case it's all true!' All of the above are orphaned godchildren of and trace some ancestry to metaphysics.
Comedian extraordinaire George Carlin said "When it comes to bullshit...big time, major league bullshit...you have to stand in awe of the all-time champion of false promises and exaggerated claims...religion...Religion has convinced people that there’s an invisible man…living in the sky, who watches everything you do every minute of every day. And the invisible man has a list of ten specific things he doesn’t want you to do. And if you do any of these things, he will send you to a special place, of burning and fire and smoke and torture and anguish for you to live forever, and suffer and burn and scream until the end of time. But he loves you. He loves you and he needs money." Carlin found a way to offend all major religions and vegetarians with: "When Will Jesus Bring the Pork Chops?" Religious history is rife with outright fables writ large.
Did someone call out the gods? They came from all corners of the world. Sumer and the rest of Mesopotamia shared some: Anu, Enlil, Ea/Enki, Ninhursag, Inanna/Ishtar, Nanna/Sin, Utu/Shamash, etc. Later, Marduk reigned supreme. Egypt had its Trinity of Osiris, Isis and Horus, along with Thoth, Nut, Set, Anubis, Amun-Ra, Aten, etc. Amen, which originated in Egypt, seems appropriate here. Greeks and Romans who borrowed from them had parallel gods: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, Dionysus, etc. living on Mt. Olympus for the Greeks; Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Minerva, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Diana, Vulcan, Vesta, Mercury, Ceres, etc. less locatable (Mt. Vesuvius?) for the Romans. Norse (Vikings) had their pantheon at Asgard: Odin, Frigg, Thor, Loki, Hel, Tyr, Njord, Freya, Freyr, Balder, etc. As skirt-chasers go, Schwarzenegger, Clinton and Trump are no match for Hindu Krishna, one of countless Avatars of Vishnu from the Indian subcontinent, like Shiva, Parvati, Rama, Sita, Ganesh, Saraswati, Narsimha, Brahma, Yama, Laxmi, Kamdev, amid countless others. So many females were hopelessly allured by Krishna's beauty, maybe he was a narcissist. Sari [sic], I couldn't resist! The Catholic Church oddly appears to have settled on a version of 'the Great Spirit' from Native American traditions, while some evangelicals prefer a 'fire and brimstone'-breathing Bible-thumping tyrant and other Protestants seem content with a white-bearded deity older than Methuselah.
Steven Pinker's The Better Angels of Our Nature : Why Violence Has Declined began with a strange quotation by Blaise Pascal: "What a chimera then is man! What a novelty, what a monster, what a chaos, what a contradiction, what a prodigy! Judge of all things, feeble earthworm, repository of truth, sewer of uncertainty and error, the glory and scum of the universe". While certainly thought-provoking, perhaps a more apt one may have been his "All men's miseries derive from not being able to sit in a quiet room alone." I was bemused with all of the author's examples of Old Testament mindless smiting, butchery, genocide and rape, either performed by Yahweh Himself or by His Chosen People at His behest. Is this the same God that inspired more peaceful religious philosophies from Jesus and Muhammad? A good case was made for Christians having abandoned their traditions of torture and persecution by compartmentalizing their religious ideology. How many times did the jealous Gods of the Old Testament (El, יהוה, Elohim, Yahweh) desert Their so-called Chosen People? Hebrews all vanished in the Diaspora, now replaced by Khazarian interlopers who have no legitimate claim to Palestine, according to historian Arthur Koestler's The Thirteenth Tribe and Shlomo Sand's The Invention of the Jewish People.
Saul of Tarsus (Saint Paul) likely originated the divinity myth of Jehoshua (Jesus in Greek), a ludicrous notion for at least a few reasons, but heresy to say so. It takes a mighty 'leap of faith' to accept that a divine Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost was born of a human virgin, lived as a carpenter, gave that up to preach and work miracles among the mostly poor and sick, picked 12 stooges as followers, was betrayed, tried, tortured, and died nailed to a wooden cross, then returned from the dead unrecognized, gave private advanced counsel for 40 days, and left fishermen in charge of his indispensable legacy, before rising into the sky promising to return (or not).
The Oath of the militaristic, openly fascist Roman Catholic Jesuit Order, no doubt sworn by the first ever Jesuit pope, Francis I, includes this alarming passage, "...I furthermore promise and declare that I will, when opportunity present, make and wage relentless war, secretly or openly, against all heretics, Protestants and Liberals, as I am directed to do, to extirpate and exterminate them from the face of the whole earth; and that I will spare neither age, se or condition; and that I will hang, waste, boil, flay, strangle and bury alive these infamous heretics, rip up the stomachs and wombs of their women and crush their infants' heads against the walls, in order to annihilate forever their execrable race. That when the same cannot be done openly, I will secretly use the poisoned cup, the strangling cord, the steel of the poniard or the leaden bullet, regardless of the honor, rank, dignity, or authority of the person or persons, whatever may be their condition in life, either public or private, as I at any time may be directed so to do by any agent of the Pope or Superior of the Brotherhood of the Holy Faith, of the Society of Jesus." Walter J. Veith offers an astonishingly comprehensive survey of "Who's Who in the Zoo", interlocking worldwide secret societies from his Seventh Day Adventist perspective in Lecture 11 of 36 entitled "Secrets of Secret Societies - Walter Veith" in the "Amazing Discoveries" series on YouTube. According to that presentation, a Jesuit priest Father Staemfel, not Hitler, wrote Mein Kampf, Heinrich Himmler modeled the SS after the Jesuits, and the Saturday Evening Post on 1/17/1959 reported that the Jesuit 'Black Pope' controls all of the following: Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Scottish Rite Shriner Freemasonry, Order of Illuminati, Knights of Columbus, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, B'nai B'rith, Nation of Islam, Mafia Commission, Opus Dei and a host of other Brotherhoods. The Knights of Malta include several world figures like Presidents Gerald R. Ford, Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, Henry Kissinger, George P. Schultz, Casper W. Weinberger, Edward Teller, William F. Buckley, Jr., Stephen Bechtel, Joseph Coors, Patrick Buchanan, Merv Griffin and hundreds more. Scottish Rite 33rd degree Master Masons who crowd the world stage include U.S. Presidents George Washington, James Monroe, Andrew Jackson, James Polk, James Buchanan, Andrew Johnson, James Garfield, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, Warren Harding, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, and Gerald Ford, Winston Churchill, Cecil Rhodes, Tony Blair, Mikhail Gorbachev, Willy Brandt, Gerhard Schröder, François Mitterand, King Hussein of Jordan, Yasser Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres, Benjamin Netanyahu, J. Edgar Hoover, Al Gore, as well as countless others and even Saddam Hussein, who likely died from lymph node cancer in 1999 with one or more of his many doubles hung in his stead. I recall noting at the time of his hidey-hole discovery that the man with the magnificent beard much more resembled a longtime prisoner than a just-captured fugitive. Grand Orient Lodge members include Frederick Engels, Karl Marx, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, aka Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Leon Trotsky and François Mitterand. Members of the Illuminati include U.S. Presidents Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush, John Jacob Astor, Albert Pike, Andrew Carnegie, Irénée du Pont, W. Averell Harriman, Bertrand Russell, Ted Kennedy, McGeorge Bundy, Otto von Habsburg, Walter Freeman [probably II], Lee Teng-hui, Hillary Rodham Clinton (6th Grand Dame), Alan Greenspan, David Rockefeller, Edmund Leopold de Rothschild, Peter Wallenberg, Sr., Henry Kissinger, Joseph Stalin, Lord Peter Carrington, Lord David Owen, and Richard Holbrooke. Some belonged to multiple Orders, as is evident. George H.W. Bush seems to have the most connections, with the Order of Skull & Bones, Knights of Malta, Council on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission, and Committee of 300. The elite presume their vast network and safeguards preclude interference from investigators.
J.P. Morgan, described as 'America’s greatest banker', conspired to create money from nothing and loan it at interest to the U.S. government, according to G. Edward Griffin's 1994 book, The Creature from Jekyll Island. "The Federal Treasury was nearly out of gold in 1895, at the depths of the Panic of 1893. Morgan had put forward a plan for the federal government to buy gold from his and European banks but it was declined in favor of a plan to sell bonds directly to the general public to overcome the crisis. Morgan, sure there was not enough time to implement such a plan, demanded and eventually obtained a meeting with Grover Cleveland where he pointed out the government could default that day if they didn't do something. Morgan came up with a plan to use an old civil war statute that allowed Morgan and the Rothschilds to sell gold directly to the U.S. Treasury, 3.5 million ounces, to restore the treasury surplus, in exchange for a 30-year bond issue. The episode saved the Treasury but hurt Cleveland's standing with the agrarian wing of the Democratic Party, and became an issue in the election of 1896 when banks came under a withering attack from William Jennings Bryan. Morgan and Wall Street bankers donated heavily to Republican William McKinley, who was elected in 1896 and re-elected in 1900." "Soon after the 1907 panic, Congress formed the National Monetary Commission to review banking policies in the United States. The committee, chaired by Senator Nelson W. Aldrich of Rhode Island, toured Europe and collected data on the various banking methods being incorporated. Using this information as a base, in November of 1910 Senator Aldrich invited several bankers and economic scholars to attend a conference on Jekyll Island. While meeting under the ruse of a duck-shooting excursion, the financial experts were in reality hunting for a way to restructure America's banking system and eliminate the possibility of future economic panics. The 1910 'duck hunt' on Jekyll Island included Senator Nelson Aldrich, his personal secretary Arthur Shelton, former Harvard University professor of economics Dr. A. Piatt Andrew, J.P. Morgan & Co. partner Henry P. Davison, National City Bank president Frank A. Vanderlip and Kuhn, Loeb, and Co. partner Paul M. Warburg. From the start the group proceeded covertly. They began by shunning the use of their last names and met quietly at Aldrich's private railway car in New Jersey...This book [B. C. Forbes' Men Who Are Making America] as well as a magazine article by Forbes is the only public mention to the conference until around 1930, when Paul Warburg's book The Federal Reserve System: Its Origin and Growth and Nathaniel Wright Stephenson's book Nelson W. Aldrich: A Leader in American Politics were published."
Other books probing the intricate web of deception include John Perkins' Confessions of an Economic Hit Man, Alexandra Robbins' Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, the Ivy League, and the Hidden Paths of Power, John Coleman's The Conspirators' Hierarchy: The Committee of 300, Gary Allen's None Dare Call It Conspiracy, Michael Collins Piper’s Final Judgment, Gordon Thomas’ Seeds of Fire, even supposedly fictional works, like H.G. Wells' The Open Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World Revolution, many novels by Jules Verne, Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, or Eric BlaiGeorge Orwell's Animal Farm and 1984, plus scores more. DDE's Farewell Address 1/17/1961 and JFK's "Secret Societies" speech to the ANPA 4/27/1961 refer to secretive internal enemies and both went unheeded.
Mene Mene Tekel Upharsin—"Belshazzar's feast, or the story of the writing on the wall (chapter 5 in the Book of Daniel) tells how Belshazzar holds a great feast and drinks from the Temple vessels. A hand appears and writes on the wall. The terrified Belshazzar calls for his wise men, but they are unable to read the writing. The queen advises him to send for Daniel, renowned for his wisdom. Daniel reminds Belshazzar that his father Nebuchadnezzar, when he became arrogant, was thrown down until he learned that God has sovereignty over the kingdom of men. Belshazzar had likewise blasphemed God, and so God sent this hand. Daniel then reads the message and interprets it: God has numbered Belshazzar's days, he has been weighed and found wanting, and his kingdom will be given to the Medes and the Persians."—Wikipedia
As a young man, I had a strange dream of a hand writing a 4-line poem in the air and recognized it as potentially significant. The first line had to do with bread; the 2nd was about meat; the last two lines read, 'Need your butter slowly for, Tomorrow you will rule the Earth.' Despite its near-Biblical trappings, it doesn't yet appear to have been prophetic. So-called demons, ghosts and evil spirits serve roles to frighten believers into piety. No blessings or talismans are needed, because none of their horde who need not be named can do any harm, only other humans. All claims zealots make regarding blasphemy and sin are hogwash. Incidentally, how has the sacrament of Confession worked for hundreds, if not thousands, of Catholic priest pedophiles? Are they so weakened by temptation they can't resist sodomy? Yet one of their own is supposedly infallible. What hypocrisy! I am a much better person morally, spiritually and humanely, free of Roman Catholic instilled guilt, since abandoning religion altogether for atheism.
I know very little about Buddhism, although Nichiren Shōshū adherents seem as materialistic as 'prosperity evangelicals' and Guanyin worship appears similar to the Catholic cult of Mary. With Islam too I'm mostly unfamiliar, save that Muslims were blamed for Israel's military sorties on 9/11/2001.
Lastly are the Jews, and here I must carefully separate true victims from Rothschild Zionists who cunningly prey on them and the rest of the world. No doubt many innocents died from Nazi war crimes, but relying heavily on professional liars like Nobel Peace Prize laureate Elie Wiesel and others, proof of 6 million is scant. That figure surfaced often in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, before finding a home in the holocaust. Note this former motto of Mossad, 'By way of deception, thou shalt do war' from Proverbs 24:6, muted in some translations. The Talmud states that Gentiles (goyim) must be cheated and treated like animals. A long list of offensive Talmudic quotations is easily found online. This was the main reason, together with later false rumors that Jews spread Black Plague, for their expulsion from most of Europe, as shown rife with UN resolutions condemning Israel. It is no secret that Jews control large fiefdoms in a few key fields worldwide, like banking, media, and government, vastly disproportional to their total estimated 17 million, but less well-known are their powerful networking alliances, AIPAC lobbying group, and the Anti-Defamation League that offer them significant advantages over any other ethnicities. The Red Cross reported Jewish population rose during the decade they supposedly lost a third. Ever lording it over mankind, endless books, films, TV roles, superfluous awards, free money, and super-secret nuclear weapons feed their bottomless inadequacy. You may think me mad to claim that crowned heads of Britain, Europe and the Mid-East, including the House of Saud are hidden Jews, yet try refuting it. After all, the U.K.'s Queen heads the Church of England and the Saudis protect Islam's holiest sites Mecca and Medina. Mossad is adept at public relations and making their murders look like suicides. JFK's assassination may have been payback for his temerity to challenge David Ben-Gurion over Israel's Dimona breeder reactor and its other attempts to acquire WMDs. Broadcast news media are obsessed with 'conspiracy theories', citing them several times every single day, but facts are facts and fake news ain't.
Despite prolific use of words for peace in Greek eirênê, Latin pax, Arabic سلام salām, Hebrewשָׁלוֹם ‎ shalom, Sanskrit शान्तिः śāntiḥ, far more is done to foment and support war and division within their ranks among the Abrahamic religions than peace. Nor is it any secret that Hindu scriptures glorify violence and war. Therefore, it is my recommendation that Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Judaism be abandoned, if the world ever hopes to find lasting peace. Faith defenders may list the public good these religions do, but I contend their hidden evils trump it all. A pax [sic] on all their houses. Humanity would best be rid of its metaphysical bastards' worst warmongers, whoremongers, hypocrites, and pedophiles to find real spirituality. Hallelujah!
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2019.07.15 04:15 AlephPlusOmega CMV: The Position that the Ancient Egyptians Were Black Is Not Inherently Afro-Centric and Is Well Supported

Hey Reddit;
A lot of historians posit that it is merely a product of Afro-Centric bias that many attribute 'Blackness' to Ancient Egyptians; however, they often fail to add the very Eurocentric and quite frankly White Supremacist lensing through which most historical texts are written, especially in educational contexts. This, of course, is manifested as ignorance of the contributions and impact of peoples of color throughout history and the reduction of these peoples to mere victims in the white man's world, whereas even in periods like Medieval Europe, we see the presence and influence of people of color, the standard brush of history afforded by historians is one of erasure. Dr. Sarah Bonds of the University of Iowa, recently was a guest on Citations Needed and discussed her work on this subject:
https://hyperallergic.com/383776/why-we-need-to-start-seeing-the-classical-world-in-colo ; https://www.forbes.com/sites/drsarahbond/2017/04/27/whitewashing-ancient-statues-whiteness-racism-and-color-in-the-ancient-world/

This is not to excuse the arguments of Afro-Centrics, like 'Black Hebrew Israelites' who attempt to claim the advancements of every civilization, but to put into scope the audacity of the historical orthodoxy who merely a generation ago still participated in coordinated efforts to deny the accomplishments of any and all African civilizations through the 'Caucasoid-Negroid' Hypothesis, a theory that while orthodox not too long ago, receives nowhere near the attention of historiographers as the Black Egyptian Hypothesis. It'd be one thing if historians were above the fray when it comes to racial matters, but we know this has never been the case, as there literally was a well-documented movement, particularly during the 19th century in the United States (ala Slavery) to hide the Blackness of Ancient Egypt. Yes, it is common for African-Americans to distrust white scholars on this issue, because historically they haven't exactly been beyond motivated reasoning.
What truly is boggling when it comes to this issue is that many historians challenge the notion of race as a concept when presented with visual evidence of Egypt's Blackness in order to avoid the debate altogether. With no other civilization do historians struggle to grasp the reality of race, only in the case of Ancient Egyptians is this defense used. As seen when political pundits can with ease cling to the 'Whiteness" and "Westerness" of historical figures whose existence predated race. Unfortunately, despite the feigned egalitarian efforts of these historians, the lens of race certainly is valid in that race impacts the everyday lives of modern peoples and so too impacts their perception of history. This is an undeniable fact and ignoring this issue is a disservice to our discourse as racists and bigots will co-opt these tools no matter how much we pretend they do not exist.

So is it Afro-Centric to posit the Ancient Egyptians were Black? No more than it is Eurocentric to label the Medieval times as 'White', though this is not a perfect comparison, it shows the hypocrisy of orthodox historians who fail to apply the same considerations and scrutiny to their own suppositions.

Let's look at some examples, it is a known established FACT, that a number of Pharaohs were indeed Black, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iN3690N6UTY&t=74s, national geographic has done plenty of stories on it. We also know that figures like Cleopatra were Greek (of the super-incestuous-Ptolemaic variety), there no problem assigning race. However, when it comes to other dynasties, Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, Upper Kingdom, historians magically lose their ability to discern the race of certain figures.

Queen Tiye:http://www.touregypt.net/images/touregypt/akhenaten.jpg

She was the wife of Amenhotep III of the 18th Dynasty:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amenhotep_III#/media/File:Inside_the_British_Museum,_London_-_DSC04210.JPG

Ok tell me this man was not Black.

Note that in the Nat Geo documentary I gave you, they are talking about the 25th Dynasty after the Kushite invasion. So this is seven dynasties BEFORE the so called "Black Pharoahs of Egypt".

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twenty-fifth_Dynasty_of_Egypt

Even going back to Menes the Uniter, we see that he has African features, despite the common depiction of Ancient Egyptians having aquiline noses:
https://bit.ly/2xIiZqa

King Tut was remodelled like this: https://bit.ly/2YLHkav
His funerary depiction (ka) is as follows:
https://bit.ly/2SbGIs7
And in life he looked like Michael Jackson: https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4705558; https://bit.ly/2JsrPij

This is not to mention Amhose Nefertari, Rameses II, Rameses III, all of which are clearly Black by modern definitions, just look at Ramses III: https://bit.ly/2XRzpeF, If you're willing to do your research, it's visually clear from the old kingdom (4th dynasty for this example) of Menkuare: https://bit.ly/2JFYEaJ, to the New Kingdom (Rameses III), there were certainly Black Pharoahs of Egypt. Yes there was the Hykos invasion, yes there was Ptolemaic period, but that's the nuance--Ancient Egypt like many other societies was not just 'one peoples' ruling throughout its existence, that must be acknowledged. However from the contemporary writings of Greek historians such as Aristotle, Diodorus, Herodotus, and Strabo all describe the Egyptians as having dark skin, curly hair, and thick lips, often lumping them in with Ethiopians.

If anything the Black Egypt Hypothesis should open a deeper discussion on how we define the 'race of a society' and how this concept has been treated historically, rather than the vitriolic rebukes and half-handed dismissals we often see on this subject. Was all of Egypt BLACK? Probably not. Was all of Medieval Europe White? Nope. Is it acceptable and expected to depict it as such, and do most educational historic frameworks take this as a given, yes. Why the difference? Why is it so taboo to acknowledge the obviously Black leaders of Egypt, even if it is done without erasing those who were not Black? In other contexts this is orthodox, yet it is not labelled as Eurocentric by historians. But it is. Acknowledging that Egyptians were Black does not necessarily entail the erasure of other peoples, but rather gives important contextual understanding that has otherwise been discarded/lost in the name of racism. There is plenty of evidence to suggest this and it should be treated as a viable hypothesis with the caveat that Egypt changed drastically over its many dynasties, rather than some 'Afro-Centric' leprosy.

Change my mind.


Edit: For those arguing on genetics, please note the following from Egyptologist F.J Yurco:
“DNA studies of Nile Valley gene flow. A 1999 DNA study of gene flow among the Nile Valley populations raises even more doubts about the Aryan model's claims of a "Mediterranean race" sweeping into the north, then branching out to civilize the darker natives further south. The study demonstrates that movement was taking place freely, with more weight of gene flow from the 'darker' South up into the north or Lower Egypt than north-south movement. THIS CORROBORATES WITH HISTORICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE PREDOMINANT CULTURAL WEIGHT OF THE 'DARKER' SOUTH LEADING INTO ESTABLISHMENT OF THE FIRST EGYPTIAN DYNASTIES. The DNA data also shows substantial gene flow between Egypt and Nubia, confirming Egyptologist Frank Yurco's observation (Yurco 1989) that the Nubians were the closest people ethnically to the Egyptians, and that EGYPTIAN DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN THEMSELVES AND NUBIANS WAS PRIMARILY IN A POLITICAL, NOT RACIAL CONTEXT”.

EDIT:

Couple of notes:
On the genetic side, please research E1B1B and E1b1a; Rameses III for example had E1b1a, which most geneticists interpret to mean he was similar or shared similar traits to what we would call 'Black'.
We see evidence of this in the spread of E1B1B - the predominate haplogroup of Egyptians, which is almost exclusively African. If the roots of E1B1B are West Eurasian you would expect a higher concentration in West Asia, but you do not. What you might find most unusual about the map below is the fact that the highest concentrations of E1B1B are in the Horn of Africa.

Honestly, none of us are geneticists to really debate these findings and an internet forum is not the best place to hash these out. So I understand the lack of understanding.

What really is baking my noodle is that almost no one here has bothered to acknowledge that these people look Black. I mean there was one person who posited that they just thought looking Black was cool, which again, is just a joke of a response that can be dismissed without much thought. Curious to see no one acknowledge that the figures I listed looked Black, but rather lean on the idea that we can have Black people who are secretly something else, as if race was anything but phenotypic. Quite daunting to see people who argue that race is arbitrary then turn around to argue for race-essentialism in the same heartbeat. I suppose I was hoping for more of an explanation of the rationale of the denial, but all I have concluded is that this denial is essentially ingrained in the institutionally reinforced White supremacist historical worldview of many peoples.

Thank you for engaging.
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2019.07.09 22:53 MarleyEngvall ahura mazda [ormuzd] has been created

By John Lord, LL. D. ANCIENT RELIGIONS. (i.) EGYPTIAN, ASSYRIAN, BABYLONIAN, AND PERSIAN. IT is my object in this book on the old Pagan civilization to present the salient points only, since an exhaustive work is impossible within the limits of these volumes. The practical end which I have in view is to collate a sufficient number of acknowledged facts from which to draw sound infer- ences in reference to the progress of the human race, and the comparative welfare of nations in ancient and modern times. The first inquiry we naturally make is in regard to the various religious systems which were accepted by the ancient nations, since religion, in some form or other, is the most universal of institutions, and has had the earliest and the greatest influence on the con- dition and life of the peoples——that is to say, on their civilizations——in every period of the world. And, necessarily, considering what is the object of religion, when we undertake to examine any particular form of it which has obtained among any people or at any period of time, we must ask, How far did its priests and sages teach the exalted ideas of Deity, of the soul, and of immortality? How far did they arrive at lofty and immutable principles of morality? How far did religion, such as was taught, practically affect the lives of those who professed it, and lead them to just and reasonable treatment of one another, or to holy contemplation, or noble deeds, or sublime repose in anticipation of a higher and endless life? And how did the various religions compare with what we believe to be the true religion——Christianity——in its pure and ennobling truths, its inspiring promises, and its quiet influence in changing and developing character? I assume that there is no such thing as a progress- ive Christianity, except in so far as mankind grow in the realization of its lofty principles; that there has not been and will not be any improvement on the ethics and spiritual truths revealed by Jesus the Christ, but that they will remain forever the stand- ard of faith and practice. I assume also that Chris- tianity has elements which are not to be found in any other religion,——such as original teachings, divine revelations, and sublime truths. I know it is the fashion with many thinkers to maintain that improve- ments on the Christian system are both possible and probable, and that there is scarcely a truth which Christ and his apostles declared which cannot be found in some other ancient religion, when divested of the errors there incorporated with it. This notion I repudiate. I believe that systems of religion are per- fect or imperfect, true or false, just so far as they agree or disagree with Christianity; and that to the end of time all systems are to be measured by the Christian standard, and not Christianity by any other system. The oldest religion of which we have clear and au- thentic account is probably the pure monotheism held by the Jews. Some nations have claimed a higher anti- quity for their religion——like the Egyptians and Chinese ——than that which the sacred writings of the He- brews show to have been communicated to Abraham, and to earlier men of God treated of in those Scrip- tures; but their claims are not entitled to our full cedence. We are in doubt about them. The origin of religion is enshrouded in mystical darkness, and is a mere speculation. Authentic history does not go back far enough to settle the point. The primi- tive religion of mankind I believe to have been re- vealed to inspired men, who, like Shem, walked with God. Adam, in paradise, knew who God was, for he heard His voice; and so did Enoch and Noah, and, more clearly than all, Abraham. They believed in a personal God, maker of heaven and earth, infinite in power, supreme in goodness, without beginning and without end, who exercises a providential oversight of the world which he made. It is certainly not unreasonable to claim the greatest purity and loftiness in the monotheistic faith of the Hebrew patriarchs, as handed down to his children by Abraham, over that of all other founders of ancient religious systems, not only since that faith was, as we believe, supernaturally communicated, but since the fruit of that stock, especially in its Christian develop- ment, is superior to all others. This sublime mono- theism was ever maintained by the Hebrew race, in all their wanderings, misfortunes, and triumphs, except on occasions when they partially adopted the gods of those nations with whom they came in contact, and by whom they were corrupted or enslaved. But it is not my purpose to discuss the religion of the Jews in this connection, since it is treated in other volumes of this series, and since everybody has access to the Bible, the earlier portions of which give the true account not only of the Hebrews and their special progenitor Abraham, but of the origin of the earth and of mankind; the most intelligent persons are familiar with its details. I begin my description of ancient religions with those systems with which the Jews were more or less familiar, and by which they were more or less influ- enced. And whether these religions were, as I think, themselves corrupted forms of the primitive revelation to primitive man, or, as is held by some philosophers of to-day, natural developments out of an original worship of the powers of Nature, of ghosts of an- cestral heroes, of tutelar deities of household, family, tribe, nation, and so forth, it will not affect their re- lation to my plan of considering this background of history in its effects upon modern times, through Judaism and Christianity. The first which naturally claims our attention is the religion of ancient Egypt. But I can show only the main features and characteristics of this form of paganism, avoiding the complications of their system and their perplexing names as much as possible. I wish to present what is ascertained and intelligible rather than what is ingenious and obscure. The religion of Egypt is very old,——how old we can- not tell with certainty. We know that it existed be- fore Abraham, and with but few changes, for at least two thousand years. Mariette places the era of the first Egyptian dynasty under Menes at 5004 B. C. It is supposed that the earliest form of the Egyptian re- ligion was monotheistic, such as was known later, how- ever, only to a few of the higher priesthood. What the esoteric wisdom really was we can only conjec- ture, since there are no sacred books or writings that have come down to us, like the Indian Vedas and the Persian Zend-Avesta. Herodotus affirms that he knew the mysteries, but he did not reveal them. But monotheism was lost sight of in Egypt at an earlier period than the beginning of authentic history. It is the fate of all institutions to become corrupt, and this is particularly true of religious systems. The reason of this is not difficult to explain. The Bible and human experience fully exhibit the course of this degradation. Hence, before Abraham's visit to Egypt the religion of that land had degenerated into a gross and complicated polytheism, which it was apparently for the interest of the priesthood to perpetuate. The Egyptian religion was the worship of the powers of Nature,——the sun, the moon, the planets, the air, the storm, light, fire, the clouds, the rivers, the lightning, all of which were supposed to exercise a mysterious influence over human destiny. There was doubtless an indefinite sense of awe in view of the wonders of the material universe, extending to a vague fear of some almighty supremacy over all that could be seen or known. To these powers of Nature the Egyptians gave names, and made them divinities. The Egyptian polytheism was complex and even con- tradictory. What it lost in logical sequence it gained in variety. Wilkinson enumerates seventy-three prin- cipal divinities, and Birch sixty-three; but there were some hundreds of lesser gods, discharging peculiar functions and presiding over different localities. Every town had its guardian deity, to whom prayers or sacri- fices were offered by the priests. The more compli- cated the religious rites the more firmly cemented was the power of the priestly caste, and the more indispensible were priestly services for the offerings and propitiations. Of these Egyptian deities there were eight of the first rank; but the list of them differs according to different writers, since in the great cities different deities were worshipped. These were Ammon——the concealed god,——the sovereign over all (correspond- ing to the Jupiter of the Romans), whose sacred city was Thebes. At a later date this god was identified with Ammon Ra, the physical sun. Ra was the sun- god, especially worshipped at Heliopolis,——the sym- bol of light and heat. Kneph was the spirit of God moving over the face of the waters, whose principal seat of worship was in Upper Egypt. Phtha was a sort of artisan god, who made the sun, moon, and the earth, "the father of beginnings;" his sign was the scarabæus, or beetle, and his patron city was Mem- phis. Khem was the the generative principle presiding over the vegetable world,——the giver of fertility and lord of the harvest. These deities are suppose to have represented spirit passing into matter and form, ——a process of divine incarnation. But the most popular deity was Osiris. His image is found standing on the oldest monument, a form of Ra, the light of the lower world, and king and judge of Hades. his worship was universal through- out Egypt, but his chief temples were at Abydos and Philæ. He was regarded as mild, beneficent, and good. In opposition to him were Set, malignant and evil, and Bes, the god of death. Isis, the wife and sister of Osiris, was a sort of sun goddess, representing the productive power of Nature. Khons was the moon god. Maut, the consort of Ammon, represented Na- ture. Sati, the wife of Kneph, bore a resemblance to Juno. Nut was the goddess of the firmament; Ma was the goddess of truth; Horus was the mediator between creation and destruction. But in spite of the multiplicity of deities, the Egyp- tian worship centered in some form upon heat or fire, generally the sun, the most powerful and brilliant of the forces of Nature. Among all the ancient pagan nations the sun, the moon, and the planets, under different names, whether impersonated or not, were the principal objects of worship for the people. To these temples were erected, statues raised, and sac- rifices made. No ancient nation was more devout, or more con- stant in the service of its gods, than were the Egyptians; and hence, being superstitious, they were pre-eminently under the control of priests, as the people were in India. We see, chiefly in India and Egypt, the power of caste,——tyrannical, exclusive, and pretentious,——and powerful in proportion to the belief in a future state. Take away the belief in future existence and future rewards and punishments, and there is not much re- ligion left. There may be philosophy and morality, but not religion, which is based on the fear and love of God, and the destiny of the soul after death. Saint Augustine, in his "City of God," his greatest work, ridicules all gods who are not able to save the soul, and all religions where future existence is nor recog- nized as the most important thing which can occupy the mind of man. We cannot then utterly despise the religion of Egypt, in spite of the absurdities mingled with it,—— the multiplicity of gods and the doctrines of metem- psychosis,——since it included a distinct recognition of a future state of rewards and punishments "accord- ing to the deeds done in the body." On this belief rested the power of the priests, who were supposed to intercede with the deities, and who alone were ap- pointed to offer to them sacrifices, in order to gain their favor or deprecate their wrath. The idea of death and judgment was ever present to the thoughts of the Egyptians, from the highest to the lowest, and must have modified their conduct, stimulating them to virtue, and restraining them from vice; for virtue and vice are not revelations,——they are instincts implanted in the soul. No ancient teacher enjoined the duties based on an immutable morality with more force than Confucius, Buddha, and Epictetus. Who in any land or age has ignored the duties of filial obedience, respect to rulers, kindness to the miserable, protection of the weak, honesty, benevolence, sincerity, an truthfulness? With the discharge of these duties, written on the heart, have been associated the favor of the gods, and happiness in the future world, whatever errors may have crept into theological dogmas and speculations. Believing then in a future state, where sin would be punished and virtue rewarded, and believing in it firmly and piously, the ancient Egyptians were a peace- ful and comparatively moral people. All writers admit their industry, their simplicity of life, their respect for law, their loyalty to priests and rulers. Hence there was permanence in their institutions, for rapine, violence, and revolution were rare. They were not warlike, although often engaged in war by the com- mand of ambitious kings. Generally the policy of their government was conservative and pacific. Mili- tary ambition and thirst for foreign conquest were not the peculiar sins of Egyptian kings; they sought rather to develop national industries and resources. The occupation of the people was in agriculture and the useful arts, which last they carried to considera- ble perfection, especially in the working of metals, textile fabrics, and ornamental jewelry. Their grand monuments were not triumphal arches, but temples and mausoleums. Even the pyramids may have been built to preserve the bodies of kings until the soul should be acquitted or condemned, and therefore more religious in their uses than as mere emblems of pride and power; and hen monuments were erected to perpetuate the fame of princes, their supreme design was to receive the engraven memorials of the virtu- ous deeds of kings as fathers of the people. The priests, whose business it was to perform re- ligious rites and ceremonies to the various gods of hte Egyptians, were extremely numerous. They held the highest social rank, and were exempt from taxes. They were clothed in white linen, which was kept scrupu- ously clean. They washed their whole bodies twice a day; they shaved the head, and wore no beard. They practiced circumcision, which rite was of ex- treme antiquity, existing in Egypt two thousand four hundred years before Christ, and at least four hun- dred years before Abraham, and has been found among primitive peoples all over the world. They did not make a show of sanctity, nor were they ascetic like the Brahmans. They were married, and were allowed to drink wine and to eat meat, but not fish nor beans, which disturbed digestion. The son of a priest was generally a priest also. There were grades of rank among the priesthood; but not more than in the Roman Catholic Church. The high-priest was a great dignitary, and generally belonged to the royal family. The king himself was a priest. The Egyptian ritual of worship was the most com- plicated of all rituals, and their literature and phi- losophy were only branches of theology. "Religious observances," says Freeman Clarke, "were so numerous and so imperative that the most common labors of daily life could not be performed without a perpetual ref- erence to some priestly regulation." There were more religious festivals than among any other ancient na- tin. The land was covered with temples; and every temple consecrated to a single divinity, to whom some animal was sacred, supported a large body of priests. The authorities on Egyptian history, especially Wil- kinson, speak highly, on the whole, of the morals of the priesthood, and of their arduous and gloomy life of superintending ceremonies, sacrifices, processions, and funerals. Their life was so full of minute duties and restrictions that they rarely appeared in public, and their aspect as well as influence was austere and sacerdotal. One of the most distinctive forms of the Egyptian religion was the idea of the transmigration of souls,—— that when men die, their souls reappear on earth in various animals, in expiation of their sins. Osiris was the god before whose tribunal all departed spirits ap- peared to be judged. If evil preponderated in their lives, their souls passed into a long series of animal until their sins were expiated, when the purified souls, after thousands of years perhaps, passed into their old bodies. Hence it was the great object of the Egyp- tians to preserve their mortal bodies after death, and thus arose the custom of embalming them. It is difficult to compute the number of mummies that have been found in Egypt. If a man was wealthy, it cost his family as much as one thousand dollars to embalm his body suitably to his rank. The embalmed bodies of kings were preserved in marble sarcophagi, and hidden in gigantic monuments. The most repulsive thing in the Egyptian religion was animal-worship. To each deity some animal was sacred. Thus Apis, the sacred bull of Memphis, was the representative of Osiris; the cow was sacred to Isis, and to Athor her mother. Sheep were sacred to Kneph, as well as the asp. Hawks were sacred to Ra; lions were emblems of Horus, wolves of Anubis, hippopotami of Set. Each town was jealous of the honor of its special favorites among the gods. "The worst form of this animal worship," says Rawlinson, was the belief that a deity absolutely became incarnate in an individual animal, and so re- mained until the animal's death. Such were the Apis bulls, of which a succession was maintained at Memphis in the temple of Phtha, or, according to others, of Osiris. These beasts, maintained at the cost of the priestly communities in the great temples of their re- spective cities, were perpetually adored and prayed to by thousands during their lives, and at their deaths, were entombed with the utmost care in huge sarco- phagi, while all Egypt went into mourning on their decease." Such was the religion of Egypt as known to the Jews,——a complicate polytheism, embracing the wor- ship of animals as well as the powers of Nature; the belief in the transmigration of souls, and a sacerdotal- ism which carried ritualistic ceremonies to the greatest extent known to antiquity, combined with the exal- tation of the priesthood to such a degree as to make priests the rulers of the land. To maintain their position of supremacy the priests of Egypt appealed to the fears of the people, thus favoring a degrading superstition. How far they taught that the various objects of worship were sym- bols merely of a supreme power, which they them- selves perhaps accepted in their esoteric schools, we do not know. But the priests believed in a future state of rewards and punishments, and thus recognized the soul to be of more importance than the material body, and made its welfare paramount over all other interests. This recognition doubtless contributed to elevate the morals of the people, and to make them religious, despite their false and degraded views of God, and their disgusting superstitions. The Jews could not have lived in Egypt four hun- dred years without being influenced by the popular belief. Hence in the wilderness, and in the days of kingly rule, the tendency to animal worship in the shape of the golden calves, their love of ritualistic observances, and their easy submission to the rule of priests. In one very important thing, however, the Jews escaped a degrading superstition,——that of the transmigration of souls; and it was perhaps the ab- horrence by Moses of this belief that made him so re- markably silent as to a future state. It is seemingly ignored in the Old Testament, and hence many have been led to suppose that the Jews did not believe in it. Certainly the most cultivated and aristocratic sect—— the Sadducees——repudiated it altogether; while the Pharisees held to it. They, however, were products of a later age, and learned many things——good and bad——from surrounding nations or in their cap- tivities, which Moses did not attempt to teach the simple souls that escaped from Egypt. Of the other religions with which the Jews came in contact, and which more or less were in conflict with their own monotheistic belief, very little is defi- nitely known, since their sacred books, if they had any, have not come down to us. Our knowledge is mostly confined to monuments, on which the names of their deities are inscribed, the animals which they worshipped, symbolic of the powers of Nature, and the kings and priests who officiated in religious cere- monies. From these we learn or infer that among the Assyrians, Babylonians, and Phoenicians religion was polytheistic, but without so complicated or highly organized a system as prevailed in Egypt. Only about twenty deities are alluded to in the monumental rec- cords of either nation, and they are supposed to have represented the sun, the moon, the stars, the va- rious other powers, to which were delegated by the unseen and occult supreme deity the oversight of this world. They presided over cities and the elements of Nature, like the rain, the thunder, the winds, the air, the water. Some abode in heaven, some on the earth, and some in the waters under the earth. Of all these graven images existed, carved by men's hands,——some in the form of animals, like the winged bulls of Neneveh. In the very earliest times, before history was written, it is supposed that the religion of all these nations was monotheistic, and that poly- theism was a development as men became wicked and sensual. The knowledge of the one God was gradually lost, although an indefinite belief remained that there was a supreme power over all the other gods, at least a deity of higher rank that the other gods of the people, who reigned over them as Lord of lords. This deity in Assyria was Asshur. He is recog- nized by most authorities as Asshur, a son of Shem and grandson of Noah, who was probably the hero and leader of one of the early migrations, and, as founder of the Assyrian Empire, gave it its name,—— his own being magnified and deified by his warlike descendants. Assyria was the oldest of the great em- pires , occupying Mesopotamia,——the vast plain watered by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers,——with adjacent countries to the north, west, and east. Its seat was in the northern portion of this region, while that of Babyonia or Chaldæa, its rival, was in the southern part; and although after many wars freed from the subjection of Assyria, the institutions of Babylonia, and especially its religion, were very much the same as those of the elder empire. In Babylonia the chief god was called El, or Il. In Babylonia, although Bab-el, their tutelary god, was at the head of the pantheon, his form was not represented, nor had he any special temple for his worship. The Assyrian Asshur placed kings upon their thrones, protected their armies, and directed their expeditions. In speaking of him it was "Asshur, my Lord." He was also called "King of kings," reigning supreme over the gods; and some- times he was called the "Father of the gods." His position in the celestial hierarchy corresponds with the Zeus of the Greeks, and with the Jupiter of the Romans. He was represented as a man with a horned cap, carrying a bow and issuing from a winged circle, which circle was the emblem of ubiquity and eternity. This emblem was also the accompaniment of Assyrian royalty. These Assyrian and Babylonian deities had a di- rect influence on the Jews in later centuries, because traders on the Tigris pushed their adventurous expe- ditions from the head of the Persian Gulf, either around the great peninsula of Arabia, or by land across the des- erts, and settled in Canaan, calling themselves Phœ- nicians; and it was from the descendants of these enterprising but morally debased people that the chil- dren of Israel, returning from Egypt, received the most pertinacious influence of idolatrous corruption. In Phœnicia the chief deity was also called Bel, or Baal, meaning "Lord," the epithet of the one divine being who rules the world, or the Lord of heaven. The deity of the Egyptian pantheon, with whom Baal most nearly corresponds, was Ammon, addressed as the su- preme God. Ranking after El in Babylon, Asshur in Assyria, and Baal in Phœnicia,——all shadows of the same su- preme God,——we notice among these Mesopotamians a triads of the great gods, called Anu, Bel, and Hea. Anu, the primordial chaos; Hea, life and intelligence animating matter; and Bel, the organizing and creative spirit,——or, as Rawlinson thinks, "the original gods of the earth, the heavens, and the waters, correspond- ing in the main with the classical Pluto, Jupiter, and Neptune, who divided between them the dominion over the visible creation." The god Bel, in the pantheon of the Babylonians and Assyrians, is the God of gods, and Father of gods, who made the earth and heaven. His title expresses dominion. In succession to the gods of this first trio,——Anu, Bel, and Hea,——was another trio, named Siu, Shamas, and Vul, representing the moon, the sun, and the at- mosphere. "In Assyria and Babylon the moon-god took precedence of the sun-god, since night was more agreeable to the inhabitants of those hot countries than the day." Hence, Siu was the more popular deity; but Shamas, the sun, as having most direct reference to physical nature, "the lord of fire," "the ruler of the day," was the god of battles, going forth with the armies of the king triumphant over enemies. The worship of this deity was universal, and the kings regarded him as affording them especial help in war. Vul, the third of this trinity, was the god of the at- mosphere, the god of tempests,——the god who caused the flood which the Assyrian legends recognize. He cor- responds with the Jupiter Tonans of the Romans,—— "the prince of the power of the air," destroyer of crops, scatterer of the harvest, represented with a flaming sword; but as god of the atmosphere, the giver of rain, of abundance, "the lord of fecundity," he was beneficent as well as destructive. All these gods had wives resembling the goddesses in the Greek mythology,——some beneficent, some cruel; rendering aid to men, or pursuing them with their an- ger. And here one cannot resist the impression that the earliest forms of the Greek mythology were de- rived from the Babylonians and Phœnicians, and that the Greek poets, availing themselves of the legends re- specting them, created the popular religion of Greece. It is a mooted question whether the Greek civiliza- tion is chiefly derived from Egypt, or from Assyria and Phœnicia,——probably more from these old mon- archies combined than from the original seat of the Aryan race east of the Caspian Sea. All these an- cient monarchies had run out and were old when the Greeks began their settlements and conquests. There was still another and inferior class of deities among the Assyrians and Babylonians who were ob- jects of worship, and were supposed to have great influence on human affairs. These deities were the planets under different names. The early study of astronomy among the dwellers on the plains of Babylon and in Mesopotamia gave an astral feature to their religion which was not prominent in Egypt. These astral deities were Nin, or Bar (the Saturn of the Romans); and Merodach (Jupiter), the august god "the eldest son of Heaven," the Lord of battles. This was the favorite god of Nebuchadnezzar, and epithets of the highest honor were conferred upon him, as "King of heaven and earth," the "Lord of all beings," etc. Nergal (Mars) was a war god, his name signi- fying "the great Hero," "the King of battles." He goes before kings in their military expeditions, and lends them assistance in the chase. His emblem is the human-headed winged lion seen at the entrance of royal palaces. Ista (Venus) was the goddess of beauty, presiding over the love of both men and ani- mals, and was worshipped with unchaste rites. Nebo (Mercury) had the charge over learning and culture,—— the god of wisdom, who "teaches and instructs." There were other deities in the Assyrian and Baby- lonian pantheon whom I need not name, since they played a comparatively unimportant part in human affairs, like the inferior deities of the Romans, pre- siding over dreams, over feasts, over marriage, and the like. The Phœnicians, like the Assyrians, had their god- desses. Astoreth, or Astarte, represented the great female productive principle, as Baal did the male. It was originally a name for the energy of God, on a par with Baal. In one of her aspects she repre- sented the moon; but more commonly she was the representative of the female principle in Nature, and was connected more or less with voluptuous rites,—— the equivalent of Aphrodite, or Venus. Tanith also was a noted female deity, and was worshipped at Carthage and Cyprus by the Phœnician settlers. The name is associated, according to Gesenius, with the Egyptian goddess Nut, and with the Grecian Artemis the huntress. An important thing to be observed of these various deities is that they do not uniformly represent the same power. Thus Baal, the Phœnician sun-god, was made by the Greeks and Romans equivalent to Zeus, or Jupiter, the god of thunder and storms. Apollo, the sun-god of the Greeks, was not so powerful as Zeus, the god of the atmosphere; while in Assyria and Phœnicia the sun-god was the greater deity. I n Babylonia, Shama was a sun-god as well as Bel; and Bel again was the god of the heavens, like Zeus. While Zeus was the supreme deity in the Greek mythology, rather than Apollo the sun, it seems that on the whole the sun was the prominent and the most commonly worshipped deity of all the Oriental nations, as being the most powerful force in Nature. Behind the sun, however, there was supposed to be an indefinite creative power, whose form was not represented, wor- shipped in no particular temple by the esoteric few who were his votaries, and called the "Father of all the gods," "the Ancient of days," reigning supreme over them all. This indefinite conception of the Je- hovah of the Hebrews seems to me the last flickering light of the primitive revelation, shining in the souls of the most enlightened of the Pagan worshippers, including perhaps the greatest of the monarchs, who were priests as well as kings. 
from Beacon Lights of History, by John Lord, LL. D., Volume I, Part I: The Old Pagan Civilizations Copyright 1883, 1888, by John Lord. Copyright 1921, By Wm. H. Wise & Co., New York; pp. 27—49.
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2018.12.16 06:54 RodriTama [Megathread] Support your favorite players, streamers, casters, or whoever personality that is changing plans because of HGC cancellation!

With the recent news on changes in the game direction, people are starting to consider new options, and there's a perfect opportunity to show the support we build as a community that brought us together.
Inspired by this post. It's something that I am interested to see, and since no one made one, here it is.
The point of this is to make a quick collaborative list of what everyone will be doing/planning, see if it align with what you have interest, and maybe everyone wins:
NA:
EU:
Korea:
Casters:
Streamers/Everyone else:
Feel free to comment any plans or updates at any time, any missing personalities. If possible, with a source. English is not my 1st language, so any missinterpretation corretion is welcome too. I don't use twitter so I'm probably won't be knowing most changes. Will try to update the changes whenever I can.
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2018.10.01 18:16 KayfabeSoupPBR Vintage Intern: The Monday Night Wars, Volume 3: WCW Fall Brawl ‘95, 9/17/1995

original Facebook post: https://www.facebook.com/KayfabeSoup/photos/a.1753369571559547/2199238563639310/?type=3&theater

-As a brief note before the show kicks off, due to Nitro only coming into existence two weeks prior to the PPV, and me not having episodes of Worldwide or Saturday Night to catch up on any angles, we're basically going into this PPV blind. There's bound to be a few things happening that I have no explanation or backstory for, and I can't rely on nostalgia or memory because I wasn't actually watching WCW at this point in my life when this originally aired; I kind of tuned out of the product when Hogan showed up and nerfed all of my favorites, and only got back into it after Hall showed up in May of '96. So yeah, here's hoping that online reviews I've read before and Wikipedia help me fill in the blanks!
  1. US TITLE #1 CONTENDER MATCH: JOHNNY B. BADD VS FLYIN' BRIAN PILLMAN Something else I maybe should have included in the show notes: one of the fun things about Fall Brawl (or any PPV including a War Games match) is the visual of seeing two rings side by side all night. Some of the more clever workers (Rey Mysterio, I'm looking at you when you eventually show up) would actually use this as more than just a cool visual, and build spots around it. Additional note: I REALLY wish I knew what was happening on the B shows during this era, because white meat babyface ass Pillman was getting absolutely BOO'D during the introductions. Did he start randomly doing heel things on Saturday Night and I'm not aware of it? Or does this city just really love Boxing Little Richard: The Wrestler? So do you guys remember how episode 1 of Nitro started with a hot Pillman vs Liger match that I said would largely set the pace for how WCW shows typically worked? This is a much higher stakes version of that, where a shot at Sting's US title (which has NEVER been mentioned on Nitro thus far) is on the line, with two high fliers who pale in comparison to what the company would see over the next few years but were still fantastic for this era, and gets just a little shy of 30 minutes of time! Cruiserweight matches on modern day Raw were lucky to get more than 3 minutes when they were happening regularly, so a 30 minute PPV opener between two guys who could go is an absolute treat. Of course, this is pre-luchadore high flier action, so it's REALLY a combination of athletic moves, mat wrestling, and strikes. Kind of the prototype version of modern heavyweight matches with indie guys who can do flippy sh*t as well as work a more traditional size. Only with more ring psychology. As the match rolls on, I'm honestly wondering if Pillman DID go rudo at some point between Nitro 1 and now because this goes very quickly from “friendly babyface vs babyface wrestling match” to “OH GOD! Brian, why are you punching Badd in the face so hard that his ----ing eye is bleeding?!?!?!” It's a good choice for storytelling purposes, as it helps add a heightened sense of urgency to the match, and it gives former heel, former boxer Badd an excuse to get heated and throw fists of his own without looking like he's reverting back to his bad guy roots. Bonus points to Pillman trying to go all Code of Honor after things get heated by extending a hand, DOUBLE bonus points to Badd for being like “---- that, you PUNCHED ME IN THE ----ING FACE!” and refusing the handshake. Oh, and remember how I said this match got just shy of 30 minutes? The fun part is that the match actually had a 20 minute time limit! Womp womp! So yeah, the 20 minute time limit expires, and referee Nick Patrick decides that there has to be a #1 contender crowned, so the match will continue under sudden death overtime rules. So in other words, a regular match, and the whole notion of giving the match a 20 minute time limit was a moot point to begin with if there had to be a winner anyway. It's a minor oops, but still, OOPS! Pillman actually got the visual pin going into the time limit expiring, getting a 2 count on a backslide with the bell ringing right before 3, so you can probably guess who's ACTUALLY winning the match based on that, right? This final stretch has spots that would absolutely pop crowds TODAY, I should add, like Badd hitting an Avalanche Rana, or getting on the apron and press slamming Pillman off of the top turnbuckle, to the FLOOR and INTO THE ----ING BARRICADE! HOLY SH-T! This is so good that Heenan accidentally invents a modern wrestling fan chant, claiming “THIS IS WRESTLING!” The finish is comparatively simple, but great. Badd whips Pillman, and whiffs a clothesline. Pillman tries a clothesline on the rebound, he also whiffs. On the NEXT rebound, both men barrel forward at full speed, attempt simultaneous crossbodies and collide mid-air. Badd happens to land on Pillman and picks up the win, telling the story of “I may have beat Brian Pillman tonight, but just barely!” Seriously guys, even if you aren't the types to hit the Network and watch any of these shows as I review them, if you have a good 30 minutes to kill some night, hop onto the Network and watch this match. It was an absolute classic in '95, and still holds up today in 2018. RESULTS: Johnny B. Badd def. Flyin' Brian Pillman in Sudden Death Overtime via pinfall MELTZER RATING: **** (Match of the night)
-Mene Gene brings us our first interview of the night, with “The Nature Boy” Ric Flair, which is always awesome even when Flair doesn't have anything more significant to say than to recap his feud with Arn Anderson. The battle of brothers who have different career goals and are clashing as a result.
2) COBRA VS SGT. CRAIG PITTMAN Oh ****, how do I even explain this without sounding like I'm making things up? Pittman is a former marine turned pro wrestler who, while never the best worker in the world, had a legit amateur background and had a few super dope matches towards the end of his WCW career, as you'll see over the coming months. (Spoiler alert: this is not one of them!) Cobra is probably better known for his time later on in company history as the nWo's Fake Sting, here he's playing another military guy in what I can basically only describe as a Wrestling GI Joe feud. The story is that Cobra was a subordinate to Pittman during the Gulf War, but also CIA and/or Special Forces, according to the commentary team? He was left behind by his commanding officer during a mission, and has come back seeking revenge. WRESTLING REVENGE! Note that this is the blow off to their feud, and it's so important that the match gets less than 10% of the time that our opener did. Cobra (who's music is seriously just ****ing Morse code, because wow) makes his way out, Pittman's music hits but he doesn't make his way out, instead some ADDITIONAL GI Joe themed guy comes out to stand on the apron. Cobra yells at this solider, Pittman rappels down from the rafters, sneaks up on Cobra, CHOKES HIM THE **** OUT with his bullet belt before the bell rings, and after like a minute or so of bad striking and attempted wrestling moves that never make it past the “attempted” phase, Pittman locks in his Code Red cross armbar finish for the win. Remember, THIS WAS THE BLOW OFF MATCH TO A FEUD! I spent like 5 times the length of this match just writing about the backstory! RESULTS: Sgt. Craig Pittman def. Cobra via submission MELTZER RATING: DUD (and no, this is NOT your worst match of the night)
-OH SH*T! I DID NOT KNOW THIS AIRED ON FALL BRAWL! So Mr. Wonderful Paul Orndorf (who in 1995 was still ****ing AWESOME, though sadly towards the end of his career) was going through a bit of a career crisis. He lost faith in himself, and began questioning whether or not he even WAS Mr Wonderful anymore. This triggers a run in cameo appearance from Gary Spivey? Gary Spivey of the Psychic Companions Network? (To use Orndorf's on words), who uses his Psychic Companions Network powers to basically just tell Orndorf to look in the mirror and say how awesome he is. I can't even do this justice, it's so ridiculous, so watch it below. The payoff to this is... Well, it's nothing, so just enjoy the ****ing video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tKC8d_KWk6s
3) TV TITLE MATCH: DIAMOND DALLAS PAGE (W/THE DIAMOND DOLL AND MAX MUSCLE) VS THE RENEGADE (W/JIMMY HART) (C.) Speaking of “it's nothing”... THIS MATCH! If you remember my Uncensored '95 review, Renegade was basically a faux-Ultimate Warrior with none of Warrior's upside. While history remembers DDP as becoming a great (if not overly rehearsed) worker with an insane ability to connect with the audience, this is absolutely not the case in 1995, here the closest thing he has to a visual upside is “has a hot wife who serves as his hot valet”. Things would get better for one of these two men at least, but that doesn't help this match at all, sadly. You may also notice that I've yet to mention the TV title in my Nitro reviews, and that's because it is seriously one of 3 different titles on the card that were never brought up or seen on the flagship show; neither Sting's US title (despite him featuring prominently on both episodes), Renegade's TV title nor the Tag titles were even brought up once. I'm guessing that these feuds were built up on Worldwide and Saturday Night, and were never featured on the new flagship show because hey, it debuted 2 weeks before the PPV, might as well focus solely on Hogan's World title? I originally went into this match thinking that nicest thing I'll say about it is that it was at least short, at a little over 8 minutes long. Probably 8 minutes longer than it needed to be. Then as I watched it, I found small things that I actually wound up enjoying way more than I had any business doing. Page wasn't exactly a great worker at this stage in career, but he did an exceptional job both playing the chickensh*t heel role here, as well as bumping his ass off to carry Renegade to something watchable. He also has what I jokingly call the prototype version of Tye Dillinger's gimmick going on here, where he'll perform a spot and then make Diamond Doll (his wife Kimberley) hold up a sign rating that spot as a perfect 10. Okay, I take back some of the criticism I made earlier, Paige was already absolutely on point as a character worker at this point. And despite my comments about Renegade having pretty much no upside, I have to give him a bit of credit, I think he could have been a solid midcard hand if he ever learned to put a little oomph behind his offense and make it look like it was hurting anyone. Dude had the right level of energy, but with zero intensity behind his moves, and it just looked slightly above Hogan levels of phony. The finish was kinda cool too, even if it made Renegade briefly look clever, and then like a complete idiot. Max Muscle (a former bodybuilder who never really did much beyond this WCW run) got up on the apron, but Renegade sent Page into him, and hit a surprisingly nice powerslam. He went up top for a big splash or something, but instead opted to dive from the top turnbuckle to the FLOOR and hit Max with a Diving Clothesline, in what is easily the best spot of the match. He tries to get back into the ring, but Max holds his leg, and this allows DDP to hit his Diamond Cutter and become your NEW WCW TV champion. Honestly, while this wasn't a great match by any means, it was still better than I anticipated going in. RESULTS: DDP def. Renegade via pinfall MELTZER RATING: **
4) WCW TAG TITLE MATCH: HARLEM HEAT (W/SISTER SHERRI) VS DIRTY DICK SLATER AND BUNKHOUSE BUCK (W/ COL. ROBERT PARKER) (C.) I probably don't need to say anything about Harlem Heat, but the tag champions might need a bit of explanation. (1) Dirty Dick Slater is an old school legend who made a name for himself in Florida and Texas. He was noted for being tag team champions with Bob Orton Jr. as his partner, and yes, I find it absolutely hilarious that a guy named Dirty Dick was once partnered with a guy who had hepatitis. Of course, his bigger claim to fame was his tag team run with Dusty Rhodes in the late 70's. (2) Bunkhouse Buck is an old school legend from the Tennessee territory, where he wrestled under his real name of Jimmy Golden, and was part of Ron Fuller's Stud Stable. His WCW gimmick sounds like the most Southern version of a Kill Bill character possible. “My name is Bunkhouse Buck and I LOVE to Funkhouse ----!” (3) Both men started their wrestling careers in the late 60's, so at this point, they had nearly 60 years of combined experience. And were anchoring the tag division in 19-goddamn-95! And now, the match. History will remember Harlem Heat as one of the best tag teams in the promotion, and rightfully so, but this match was less about “let's have a 5 classic wrestling match”, and more about “let's create the most overbooked nonsense involving the weird relationship between each team's manager”. As a spoiler alert, as you'll come to see over the next couple of years, Harlem Heat was great, but unless they were doing squash matches, they worked almost exclusively in convoluted overbooked finishes. I might be exaggerating here, but if you watched like 10 consecutive hours of Harlem Heat matches, and took a shot every time they picked up a clean, no nonsense victory, you would be SO SOBER that if you got took a breathalyzer test right after, it'd tell you that your blood alcohol level was too LOW and you could probably use a drink or two! As a quick recap of the overbooked angle that was somehow more important than the title match itself, the relationship between Sherri and Parker was formed through sweet sweet sexual harassment. No, seriously! Parker would continually show up to try to mack on Sherri, only to get rebuffed every single time. Then during a Clash of Champions match, they got involved in a physical altercation which saw Sherri hit her head, and when she came to, she was suddenly SUPER IN LOVE with Parker all of a sudden! There's probably a ton more to this that I'm missing, but honestly that's the gist of it, and I wish it wasn't important enough for me to have to break it down in the first place because of how utterly stupid it all is, but alas, here we are! Now onto the match. As you'll see below, Meltzer took a huge sh-t all over this one, but I honestly think he was way too critical of it. It's not a lost classic or anything, but both members of Harlem Heat have this great intensity to everything they do and are obviously a top tier tag team even at this point in their careers, Slater and Buck might be way past their prime, but they're both still able to work a timeless Southern rasslin style that, while not exactly the most exciting thing in the world, is fantastic at generating heat, and is honestly still pretty awesome for those who grew up watching Memphis or Texas rasslin (or who would fall in love with it later in life like myself), and if we could have seen this play out without any overbooked nonsense factoring in, it might have been given at least a good 1/2 or 3/4 star from Dave. And now... Your wonky finish! While a 4 man cluster---- brawl occurs in the main ring, Sherri and Parker randomly decide to get into the second ring, they start making out. You'd think that this was crucial to the finish, but no, it only serves to distract US, the viewer, as we get a wide camera angle so we can see both rings at once, and then later pull AWAY FROM THE MATCH so we can see what the ----ing managers are up to! The ref gets distracted by some brawling going on outside of ring, and misses The Nasty Boys showing up. They get their hands on one of Slater's boots, not sure why it's off of his foot, but whatever, they blast Slater with the boot, and one of the Heat (I couldn't see which one because the camera was in wide angle mode) picks up the win, making Harlem Heat the new Tag champions. Note that Bunkhouse Buck was actually the legal man in the match, so... OOPS! One last fun note before we move on: although he was on the opposite side of the ring for this one, Harlem Heat actually debuted with the company (in dark matches only I believe) with Parker as their manager. At this point, their names were Kade and Kole. They were two black guys managed by an old timey plantation owner. And came to the ring WEARING CHAINS! HO...LY... SHT!!!! RESULTS: Harlem Heat def. Dirty Dick Slater & Bunkhouse Buck via pinfall MELTZER RATING: -\* I still think that's a bit unfair, match was a solid * at worse, and honestly the crowd was into it. I don't care how jaded you are, or how much you jerk off to puroresu and ONLY puroresu (I'm talking to you Dave), NO match that is resonating with the crowd in a good way should be getting negative stars.
-Okerlund is at the entrance way to meet Slater, Buck and Parker with an attempt to get their take on what happened, and Parker seems pretty fine with prioritizing “trying to get laid in the middle of the ring” over “being there to help his team win”. At no point does anyone involved in this point out that the WRONG ****ING MAN WAS PINNED, so... I guess it's just a “because WCW” moment?
-We then move onto a SECOND Okerlund interview, this time with Arn Anderson, which is the biggest possible upgrade from those last two matches that I could ever imagine! Well, first we get a video package recapping the recent feud between the two men, which is helpful for those like myself who don't have access to all of the weekend tv shows building this PPV. Much like Flair earlier in the show, Arn does such an incredible job putting over the conflicting emotions of “I love this man like he were my own flesh and blood”, and “**** you, I'm on the right side of this conflict, and I'm going to force you to respect me and my perspective with physical violence!” Though to be fair, Arn could probably spend an entire promo just reading the periodic table of elements and I'd give him an A+.
5) ARN ANDERSON VS RIC FLAIR Hey, a match I don't have to give a ton of backstory to, because this angle was touched upon on Nitro, and if I have to explain who Ric Flair and Arn Anderson are, then I don't even know what to tell you! The simplest way to sum them up is “two guys with dad bods who are BETTER AT THIS THAN ALMOST ANYONE!” A really nice touch here is that when they pan to the crowd, a good chunk of the roster is actually IN the audience, watching this one as fans, how ****ing incredible is that? It's not something I'd want to see happen enough to become an ongoing trope, but how much more gravitas would it add to a big time WWE match if they had their notable wrestlers sitting at ringside to watch it for no purpose other than “this is going to be amazing and we have to see it up close”? It's basically every 90's Flair match ever, lots of Flair stalling and begging off, lots of Flair signature selling and spots, and if you think I'm complaining, then you're so far off the mark. And if you were to watch this match by not actually watching it, and only listening to the audio, you'd swear to God it was Austin in there, Arn is so over with the audience. Arn Anderson could very well be one of the best and most over wrestlers to never get a run with the top title, I swear. The audience is also equally into Flair, and it makes for a heel vs heel match that SOUNDS like a face vs face match if you listen to the crowd noise. It's a weird dynamic that shouldn't work, but considering the legendary status of both men involved, and the amount of love and respect they've earned over the years, it absolutely does. And then, because WCW, here's your absolutely not clean finish that makes no sense, but is a means to fuel an angle who's conclusion will (spoiler alert) ALSO make no sense! In the final stretch, there's a great long submission sequence where Flair has Arn in the Figure 4, and looks to have the match won until he spits in his face. This causes Arn to fire up enough to temporarily no sell the hold (and that's the key, TEMPORARILY! He didn't pull a Hogan and heal himself to 100% HP, his adrenaline just kicked in and allowed him to briefly ignore all pain. Take this lesson to heart please, every indie wrestler working now), and reverse it. Unfortunately for Arn, Flair is close to the ropes and is able to use them to break the hold. Doubly unfortunate for Double A, Flair is in fine shape, but Arn's knee is shot, he can barely get to his feet and move around in the ring. For reasons that I couldn't explain, super whitemeat babyface Brian Pillman runs out from the crowd, gets up on the apron and yells at Flair, then punches him in the face, and hits a very early version of Finn Balor's (and a million other indie guys now) rope assisted enzuigiri; this is all done behind the ref's back, as he's busy checking on Arn. Anderson scurries over as best as he can, hits the DDT, and picks up the win. So to summarize, one heel beat another heel because a babyface ran in and unexpectedly helped him cheat? Because... WCW? Still, fantastic match, another one I suggest you all go out of your way to watch. RESULTS: Arn Anderson def. Ric Flair via pinfall MELTZER RATING: ***1/2, which seems a bit low to me, but that's just my non-star giving opinion.
-Hooboy, this should be a treat, we get a Kevin Sullivan narrated video package hyping up the War Games main event. Sullivan is a tremendous talker, but this sh*t is so hokey that I don't even think The Rock at his peak could have delivered this without sounding like a ****ing goober. Needless to say, I love it. Just the sight of Sullivan SMASHING A HULK HOGAN TOY WITH A ****ING SHOVEL alone is enough to make me want to go full Meltzer whacking it to a Tokyo Done match and give it ******1/2. The follow up WCW narrated video package is not quite as good, but still freaking awesome/hokey.
-Backstage, Okerlund gets to interview Hogan, Savage, Sting and Luger, who are decked out in camo outfits and face paint, and according to Hogan have been drinking Agent Orange. Hahaha, holy sh-t, is THAT the secret to Hogan's skin color?!?!?! Despite the narrative at the end of Monday being “Luger is Dungeon Of Doom maybe but Sting and Luger say he isn't?”, the babyfaces say they're all on the same page, and then Hogan IMMEDIATELY sh-ts on that by saying that they DIDN'T trust each other just a few minutes ago, but Macho set him straight by pulling a Stone Cold, saying “DTA, don't trust anybody”, and just focus on beating the Dungeon of Doom so Hogan gets 5 minutes alone with Sullivan. Hahahaha, what the ****?!?!?! All 4 guys sounded like they were on all the drugs here, which made this confusing at times, but pretty great honestly.
6) MAIN EVENT – WAR GAMES: THE DUNGEON OF DOOM (MENG, KAMALA, SHARK, ZODIAC, W/KEVIN SULLIVAN) VS HULK HOGAN, STING, MACHO MAN RANDY SAVAGE, AND LEX LUGER (W/JIMMY HART) For those who are unfamiliar with the War Games rules, I'll sum them up here as quick as I can. Each team starts with one member in the cage, for 5 minutes, at which point one team (the one who won a pre-match coin toss, always the heels every damn time) sends in their second. Every two minutes from there, each team alternates sending in a member until all 8 men are in the cage and then THE MATCH BEYOND starts. It's only then that the match can be won, but only by submission or surrender. Needless to say, this quickly becomes too much of a cluster**** for me to review properly, so I'll break down the entrance orders, and point out any notable/important moments. -We start with Sting vs Shark, which is probably just as exciting as you imagine it to be. Lots of Shark using his power and fatness to very... slowly... dominate... Sting... until he swings the action back into his favor with an AWESOME spot, charging with a flying clothesline that knocks both of them over the top rope and into the OTHER ring. Fan-****ing-tastic! Not as fantastic (but still hilariously awesome) is Shark trying to ****ing plancha over the top ropes of BOTH rings, but getting caught on top of both top ropes, because he's TOO FAT! -Shockingly, the heels one the coin toss (GASP!), and Zodiac is the second man to enter, because this match needed more Brutus the ****ing Barber Beefcake cosplaying a ****ing zebra who alternates between yelling “YES” and “NO”. -Macho Man is second in for the faces, which vastly increases the workrate capacity of this match. Except it's War Games, so it's all brawling anyway, oh well! -Third in for the heels is Kamala, which vastly increases the fat man quotient of this match. Holy ----, could you imagine someone trying to get the Kamala gimmick over in 2018? Could you imagine how much internet outrage would happen over trying to get “mindless African jungle savage/cannibal” to work? I think the only thing MORE offensive to everyone would be trying to get the Memphis Kamala 2 gimmick over, which was (I sh-t you not) “Kamala, but a white guy”! -In a moment that would be ironic when you think about what happens in the summer of 96, Hogan is NOT the third man tonight, Luger gets that nod. Yes, I just wanted to make an nWo joke there. Also, the babyfaces fall apart briefly due to accidental hitting, because OF COURSE THEY DO! -This means Meng is second last out, and Hogan's out last, because of COURSE Hogan is the one who's going to do the least ----ing work in this match. He hits the ring with HANDFULLS OF WHITE POWDER, and it makes sense because I'm sure that 100% of these Dungeon Of Doom storylines are booked by snorting copious amounts of the stuff. -Now as mentioned above, once everyone is in the match, it can only end by submission. The faces have Sting with his Scorpion Death Lock, and Luger with the Torture Rack, so how do you think this one is ending? If you guessed “Master of submission Hulk Hogan takes down all 4 Dungeon members by himself with sh-tty offense, takes roughly 0 bumps, and after less than 2 minutes of action (for which he'll get paid LOTS of money), makes Zodiac submit with a ****ing CHINLOCK”, then... Well, then I'll probably accuse you of having seen this before because of how specific (and correct) that guess is. He sets the chinlock up like he's going for a Camel Clutch but nope, straight up Steiner Recliners it by letting Zodiac kind of sit up on his knees, instead of lay out as fast as possible and have his back stretched into an arc. This is somehow the least frustrating Hogan match I've ever covered though, so... small victory? RESULTS: Hulk Hogan def. The Dungeon Of Doom via submission (his partners were there too) MELTZER RATING: *1/4
-Now Hogan gets 5 minutes alone in the cage with Sullivan, and if you're wondering why I'm not counting this as a bonus match or the main event or anything, well, this is really more of a post-match angle than it is a match. Lots of Hogan slamming Sullivan's head into the cage (even though the REAL way to damage someone with a steel cage is to rub their face against it like a cheese grater), they somehow go outside, then lots of Hogan slamming Sullivan's head into the OUTSIDE of the cage. And then, out from the back comes The Giant, the very first form of the current Big Show, here being presented as the son of Andre The Giant because... WCW? Somehow this literal giant manages to fight past the referee to get into the cage, SNEAK UP ON HULK HOGAN, choke him, no sell Hogan punches (HOW DOES IT FEEL YOU ****ING ORANGE ***ING DCKBAG?!?!?!), and then BREAKS HIS ***ING NECK!!!!! I don't mean that in a hyperbolic “he piledriver'd him so hard that I bet his neck is broken” way, I mean that as in he puts both hands on Hogan's head and does a big, action movie style exaggerated neck snap! The rest of Hogan's friends only come out for the save AFTER the crippling, because even they probably don't like Hulk that much, plus they know he'll no sell a broken neck anyway. So that's how we choose to end the PPV. Hulk Hogan is possibly dead, or paralyzed, be sure to tune in to see how Hogan takes a sh-t on that narrative in the coming weeks, and how this storyline becomes one of the most ridiculous things I'll ever cover!
PPV BUYRATE: 0.48 Good GAWD! Even though this was a much better show, that's like half the amount of PPV buys as Uncensored did! I'd love to know what kind of excuse Hogan had for his War Games main event being such a sh*t draw.
HIGHLIGHT OF THE NIGHT: I'm honestly torn between Pillman/Badd, and FlaiAnderson. Both were amazing in different ways, and both are absolute standouts on the card. Ultimately, I'm giving the nod to Pillman/Badd, though it's by a slim margin. Both matches were rich as far as in ring storytelling goes, the opener had that plus being super exciting going for it and just barely gets the edge in my books.
LOWLIGHT OF THE NIGHT: The pointlessness that was Pittman/Cobra. Seriously, did that even need to be a match? Wouldn't it have accomplished just as much if it were done as an angle?
NEXT WEEK: Ric Flar gets a little Fall Brawl revenge as he takes on Brian Pillman!! In a not at all similar to this storyline showcase of “good friends suddenly have an issue with each other”, Razor Ramon takes on 1-2-3 Kid! They used to be allies, but they never DID seem to... KLIQ properly. Ahem. Don't you dare miss it!
-The Intern
THE ARCHIVE:
Volume 1: https://www.reddit.com/KayfabeSoup/comments/9kc728/vintage_intern_the_monday_night_wars_volume_1_wcw/
Volume 2: https://www.reddit.com/KayfabeSoup/comments/9kh4xp/vintage_intern_the_monday_night_wars_volume_2/
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2018.10.01 17:08 KayfabeSoupPBR Vintage Intern: The Monday Night Wars Volume 2: Nitro & Raw 9/11/95

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PART 1 - WCW NITRO 09/11/1995
This week, we get our first head to head showdown between Raw and Nitro, so I get double the shows to cover! I'll be presenting Nitro before Raw, both because Raw tended to get pre-empted more often than Nitro, and because honestly, WCW was the reason I wanted to do retro reviews anyway so **** it.
-Hey, something noteworthy happens during the commentator's introduction! We learn that Vader (who is supposed to be on Hogan's War Games team at Fall Brawl) has apparently “gone AWOL” and has “not filed the proper documents” and thus will not be on the show. It should be noted that “gone AWOL” is code for “left the promotion”, and “not filed the proper documents” is code for “went back to Japan for a few months, then showed up in the WWF in January”. OOPS! This is the go home show for Fall Brawl, so yeah... Kind of a last minute announcement there guys!
  1. SABU VS ALEX WRIGHT Hoo boy! I don't think any of us were ready for the unpredictable, sloppy but super fun high flying spot monkey that was Sabu. Not anyone watching at home who hadn't heard of ECW yet, not Alex Wright, and certainly not traditional fans of Southern rasslin in general. Don't think that I'm disparaging him with the sloppy comment either, because it's almost an integral part of his style. Dude botches about as many spots as Sin Cara on any given night, but they almost never feel like botches. It feels more like an insane guy trying insane sh*t that no one should be able to successfully pull off in the first place, so it works for him. He also brings this insane recklessness that mainstream wrestling fans just hadn't seen up to this point. I'll put it to you this way: the first minute of the match has him doing a triangle jump wheel kick, and then a rana to the floor. These are his FIRST TWO MOVES! By minute two, he's brought a chair out, and is doing a chair jump wheel kick into the ****ing BARRICADE because Wright moved! Wright gets some offense in here but yeah, this is mostly a squash to get over Sabu's unique form of “I'm going to kill myself to beat you”, and is pretty dope for a short showcase match if I'm being honest. Sabu picks up the win with an avalanche Victory Roll, but continues to attack after the bell rings, and although he's not D'Von Dudley, he gets the table, putting Wright through it with a big dive. This causes the ref to reverse the decision, so there you go. Sabu loses a squash match that he won. RESULTS: Alex Wright def. Sabu via DQ
-In what tends to be a highlight in any show, Ric Flair is out to talk to Mene Gene Okerlund! He throws total shade at “Dabbalay” (that's how he pronounces “Double A” when he's screaming) for choosing to spend his weekend... GASP! On the phone with his wife and kid instead of out partying with Flair! The DASTARD! Luger shows up during the interview, and Flair puts him over big time, and cracks me up by just calling him “Package”. “Tonight, the Package will be in control!” sounds needlessly sexual, and I love it!
2) US TITLE MATCH: V.K. WALLSTREET VS STING (C.) If you're wondering who “V.K. Wallstreet” is, it's Michael Wallstreet with a new name, one week after he was introduced as “Michael Wallstreet”. If you're wondering “what's up with the V.K.”, as Bischoff did, well, this was a classic example of pro wrestling promotions ****ing with each other passive aggressively. VK is just like the initials of Vincent Kennedy McMahon, GET IT?!?!?!?!?! Speaking of passive aggressive ****ing with, Bischoff starts another Nitro tradition here: spoiling the results of pre-recorded Raw episodes. A move that never ever backfires on the promotion. You'll notice I'm not talking about the match, and that's because there's not much to be said here. It was a well worked squash, and while Wallstreet did get to shine on offense a bit, it might as well have been Sting vs Barry Horowitz, the conclusion was so foregone. Sting hits a Stinger Splash and a big crossbody from the top for the victory, because Vincent Kennedy Wallstreet wasn't even worth using a finisher on.
3) SCOTT “FLASH” NORTON VS MACHO MAN RANDY SAVAGE Oh man, we'll get there in a bit, but I can tell you right now, this match has one of my favorite “LOL WHAT?!?!?!?!” finishes ever. It is super stupid, and yet logical at the same time, and I don't even know how that combination is possible! You gotta give Savage a ton of credit here, he was beyond willing to bump his ass off and make this new monster look good in his debut match. Could you imagine Hogan doing that? Norton looks like a powerful beast who is nigh impossible to stop, Savage looks like a combination of wiley veteran and massive underdog, it's the perfect story to tell and executed splendidly here up until the finish. Within seconds of Savage avoiding a big crossbody attempt and mounting a comeback, the DUNGEON OF DOOM (specifically Kamala and Shark) come out to run interference. As both of them are getting up on the apron, Savage chucks Norton into them. Norton collapses, Kamala falls out of the ring, and Shark falls THROUGH the ropes, landing on Norton's legs and trapping him on the mat! Savage goes up top and takes advantage by hitting the Big Elbow, and essentially Norton lost a match because an interloper was TOO FAT for him to escape! Very LOL WHAT, but also very believable if I'm being honest. The rest of the Dungeon hit the ring but Savage bails before they can get to him. Good stuff here. RESULTS: Macho Man def. Scott Norton via pinfall
4) MAIN EVENT - WCW WORLD TITLE MATCH: LEX LUGER VS HULK HOGAN (W/JIMMY HART)(C.) Man, 4 matches in one hour? We're lucky to get more than 4 matches on a 2 hour episode of Smackdown these days. And they still found time to build some last minute angles for the PPV while they were at it. So here's a sentence you won't hear me say very often: Lex Luger is clearly the best worker in this match, how often does THAT happen? (Spoiler alert: there's actually a brief run in 1996 where Luger decides to become a super secret super worker, and I can't WAIT to get there!) But yeah, tell me how frustrating this is... Luger is making his return to the promotion as a hot acquisition, he's immediately positioned as a big deal, a “chaotic neutral Hulk Hogan” as Uproxx writer Brandon Stroud once put it, so what does Hogan do? He eats him up in the usual Hogan “I'm going to take your best offense and then ****ing no sell it and make you look like a chump” formula, how ****ing frustrating is THAT?!?!?! Luger gets to look more like he's capable of dealing damage to Hogan than the average opponent, but it all gets negated anyway so what does it even ----ing matter?!?!?! As a fun aside, Bischoff buries the WWF here again, saying that their current champion used to work for WCW and couldn't even get past their midcard. That champion was Diesel, who, spoiler alert, would return to WCW next year and kind of sort of help make them the biggest name in pro wrestling for awhile. OOPS! Oh, and if you think I was being harsh in my assessment of Hogan making Luger's best offense look meaningless, try this on for size: he gets locked in the TORTURE RACK for a good minute or so, they do the “raise your hand 3 times” thing that is usually just reserved for sleepers, Luger thinks Hogan's hand went down for the third time and dropped him, thinking he won, and then Hogan NO SOLD THE F—-ING TORTURE RACK! Seriously, for all of the grief modern fans give to guys like Cena, holy sh-t, Hogan makes Cena look like Dolph Ziggler in terms of making his opponent looks good! You know how the rest of this goes: sh-tty punches that look like they don't hurt, sh-tty Big Boot that is less “I'm kicking you in the face” and more “I'm holding my foot up and you're running into it”, and sh-tty Leg Drop that looks like it could hurt but he never gets much height on it, but before he can pick up the win, OOPS! The Dungeon Of Doom have left their mystical ice cave with water that's not hot (seriously, this was established in a promo video once) for the second time tonight to do the run in, causing a DQ. Interesting to note, as it plants the seeds for a storyline down the line, they don't even touch Luger, and swarm Hogan en masse. It makes sense, as Hogan is Sullivan's mortal enemy here, and Luger is just some guy who came back, but like I said, this becomes key later on. Sting and Savage run in to make the save, and I'm just surprised that Hogan didn't no sell a 5-on-1 assault and beat them all up himself. RESULT: Hulk Hogan def. Lex Luger via DQ
-For the second week in a row, we end the show with the same four babyfaces in the ring trying to air their grievances. Hogan and Savage both interpret “the Dungeon didn't touch a guy we don't have beef with” as “YOU MUST BE ON THEIR SIDE YOU STUPID ****ER!”, whereas Sting (who is notorious for being stupid and naive) comes up with “LUGER SHOULD BE ON OUR WARGAMES TEAM!!!!!” Sting thinks he should, Macho thinks he shouldn't, and Hogan asks “Wait... so you're suggesting we put Luger on our team?”, because he can't even be bothered to pay attention to his own ****ing angle. Hogan decides that yes, he accepts Luger onto the team, despite the fact that he could probably win War Games on his own anyway. Luger accepts the offer, on the condition that he gets another title shot, and this is how we go off the air: the babyfaces are either terrible human beings, or stupid. So just like the modern WWE.

PART 2 – WWE MONDAY NIGHT RAW 09/11/1995
-A couple of show notes before I dive into the review. (1) Damnit, just two weeks before this was Summerslam 95, with the HBK/Razor ladder match. Why couldn't Nitro have started two weeks sooner, and allowed me to review that?!?!?! (2) For those of you who are expecting the classic Raw announce team of Jerry Lawler and Jim Ross, what we get is... not quite that. Lawler is here, but this is before he became a rambling, baby canine obsessed pervert, and was basically just a mean spirited Southern rasslin heel in color commentary form. It ****ing rules. Opposite of him is Vince McMahon, and if you've ever been privy to listening to McMahon on commentary, you know you're in for an hilarious treat. Lots of borderline incoherent screaming that just sounds like “BAH BAH BAH BAH BAH” and occasionally forms words, lots of “WHATAMANEUVER!”, and tons of thinking that every single pin that happens in a match is a 3 count and the match is over. With a healthy dose of “right in the (body part) area!”
  1. RAZOR RAMON VS THE BRITISH BULLDOG (W/JIM CORNETTE) Before the match kicks off, we get Summerslam footage of Dean Douglas giving the HBK/Razor ladder match a poor grade. Dean is, of course, ECW icon Shane Douglas (a very Dynamic Dude I hear, ahem...) working a Wrestling Teacher gimmick, because WWF's mission statement of “The New Generation” really translates to “Let's hire a bunch of talented wrestlers and saddle them with cartoony characters and/or occupational gimmicks.” Wrestling Scarface doesn't take kindly to Wrestling Teacher's poor grade and assaults him; he's the babyface here. Oh, and another part of the “New Generation” mission statement was “Let's take these talented wrestlers we hired and have them wrestle the most boring matches possible.” Seriously, this isn't a bad match or anything, but there are lots of restholds, lots of old fashioned punchy kicky offense, Bulldog spends time powdering to the floor to confer with Cornette, it would probably be great if this were the opening build to a 10-15 minute long match. Instead, we get maybe 6 minutes of match, a ref bump (which ensured that the ref didn't see Razor get the visual pin after a Razor's Edge), and run ins from both Douglas and the 1-2-3 Kid. The ref misses the Douglas run in, but is awake when Kid tries to stop a Bulldog pinfall with a splash. Bulldog moves, Razor gets splashed, and the match is over. OOPS! Post-match, Bulldog and Cornette put the boots to our babyfaces, and we don't even find out who wins until the post-match interview. RESULTS: The British Bulldog def. Razor Ramon via DQ.
-Vince conducts a post-match interview with both Razor and Kid after the match, with King throwing shade at virtually every sentence he makes. It's awesome, but also super distracting. Kid asserts that he didn't cost Razor the match tonight, but points out that apparently Razor cost him a match last week, and then challenges The Bad Guy (who is a good guy now) to a match next week, reminding him about those two times he beat Razor back in 1993. Or was it 94? I don't even remember. Razor informs “McMang” (the racism is in his words, not mine!) that hey, even though he's feuding with Bulldog and Douglas, sure, he accepts. Next week, it'll be Wrestling Scarface vs future real life one-time porn star!
2) RAD RADFORD AND THE BROOKLYN BRAWLER VS THE SMOKING GUNS Or Wrestling Cowboys vs Wrestling Hobo Street Fighter and... Well, I don't even know what Radford's gimmick is, but Rad is actually Louis Spicolli, sadly one of the many, many wrestling tragedies. Man, I forgot that both Gunns were apparently going for “Cowboy Magnum T.A.” here, sporting the one-two combo great mullet and 'stache. But yeah, this was nothing more than a very short squash match, with a brief babyface shine spot, Bart Gunn playing Face In Peril for a cup of coffee, a hot tag to Billy, and a combination Side Slam (Bart)/Flying Leg Drop (Billy) for the win. RESULTS: The Smoking Gunns def. Brooklyn Brawler and Rad Radford via pinfall
-Here's a treat, we get a great promo from Goldust in his original incarnation, before he had Marlena along as his director, when he spoke in really cryptic sentences, and quoted movies. I can't be sure, but I think his New Generation gimmick was basically Wrestling Oscar Award. Later to become Wrestling Gay Panic Oscar Award.
3) ISAAC YANKEM D.D.S. VS SCOTT TAYLOR Or Wrestling Dentist vs jobber! Yankem is, of course, the first WWF incarnation of Glenn Jacobs, who would go on to be Fake Diesel, and of course Kane. Lest you think that this was his first stupid gimmick, in Smokey Mountain, he had a Unabomber gimmick, and in Memphis, he was both a Christmas tree themed monster, AND Doomsday from the Superman comics, proving that wrestling has always been extremely stupid at heart. Scott Taylor is, of course, the future Scotty 2 Hotty of 2 Cool. This brief paragraph took longer to write than it did for this jobber squash to finish up, Yankem gets in slow power offense, Taylor gets in pretty much zero offense, and Yankem scores the win by hitting the DDS, which is a combination of “DDT”, and “dentist joke, GET IT?!?!?!” RESULTS: Isaac Yankem def. Scott Taylor via pinfall
-Oh ****, I forgot that Todd Petengill was a thing, he's on hand to give the In Your House report and runs down the card. Man, Todd is kind of a sub-Michael Cole lame nerd, but I REALLY miss the days when we'd get angle recaps in the form of sports reports like this, instead of 20 minute long promos with multiple “Earlier Tonight” videos every week.
4) MAIN EVENT – INTERCONTINENTAL TITLE MATCH: SYCHO SID (W/TED DIBIASE) VS SHAWN MICHAELS (C.) No, that's not a typo, this is how the WWF chose to spell Psycho. It makes sense I guess, Sid probably isn't so great at spelling. He's twice the man you are, and has half the brain that you do after all (I can't WAIT to cover that promo!) HBK cuts a brief backstage promo on Sid while he makes his way to the ring, and marks me out by being leary of a ladder as he passes by. Both because he had a brutal ladder match 2 weeks prior AND because it's hilarious! Funny enough, in about a year or so, these two would have a much higher profile match, for a more high profile title, and with way more overbooked nonsense. This feels like the only match of the night that breaks the New Generation slow match trope, as Michaels is still the exciting dynamo in 1995 that you would expect him to be. Sure, Sid powders to the floor a few times to stall, and the “heat on the babyface” portions of the match are slow paced but that's fine, it's what a heel is supposed to do, it's only when the babyface shine portions of the match aren't exciting, or zero drama is built that this formula becomes a problem. Bonus points to Dibiase for getting in some stomps to Michaels' back while he's laying out on the floor, that's the kind of old school manager sh*t that wrestling is so sorely missing now. If you watched Nitro, then you already got a rough idea of how this one ended (thank you Eric Bischoff), but I liked the finish here because it kept Sid strong. Eric made it sound like Michaels got the win with one Superkick, but in order to make Sid seem that much more like a monster, it actually took 3 of them. The first two merely stunned him, and the third one put him away. For a free tv match in 1995, this was really good, and even with my jaded 2018 sensibilities, I enjoyed it a lot in general. Michaels does bad white boy stripper dances to celebrate, and it's definitely no wonder why in '96 he was getting “Shawn is gay” chants. RESULTS: Shawn Michaels def. Sycho Sid via pinfall
--We close the show with Dok Hendrix getting a backstage interview with both HBK and Diesel (**** the Kliq was all over this episode), and they put over the Triple Header match happening at the upcoming In Your House PPV. If you don't know what a Dok Hendrix is, it's former Fabulous Freebirds membecurrent HoFer and writer Michael “P.S.” Hayes, and no, I don't know why you'd hire a legendary rock 'n roll gimmick talker like Hayes and turn him into a proto Michael Cole type. The Triple Header match, by the way, is a normal tag match with kinda cluster**** rules, where HBK's IC title, Diesel's World title, AND Owen Hart/Yokozuna's tag titles are all on the line. Nope, there's no way that Team Kliq are winning thing one and holding all of the titles in the company, ahem... (Spoiler alert: I actually don't remember the outcome of this one, and haven't spoiled it for myself, so I'll find out when I review it!)
THE TV RATINGS: WWF Monday Night Raw def. WCW Monday Nitro 2.5 to 2.4 All things considered, a 0.1 point loss at this point is pretty damn good for WCW. Nitro was still very much a new show going up against a more established series with a lot more buzz around it, plus Raw giving away a PPV caliber match like HBK/Sid (something that didn't happen often in this era) was sure to attract viewers. And honestly, we're not even at a point yet where either show was generating new fans, or stealing that many viewers in the first place; each promotion more or less had their own built in fanbase who either liked both shows, or didn't give a **** about the other show. Overall, I do think that Nitro was the better show this week. As frustrating as the usual Hulk Hogan bullsh*t was and always will be, WCW creative tried way harder than the WWF's formula of “We're giving them a great main event, let's do 2 short squashes and a short marquee match with a **** finish!” Although spoiler alert, that **** finish leads to a pretty fun angle, so I can't even hate on it at all.
HIGHLIGHT OF THE WEEK: HBK vs Sycho Sid. As much as anyone who knows my tastes might expect me to give this to Sabu vs Wright (given my love of Cruiserweight action, and being such a WCW fanboy at heart), that match was a fun car wreck. Raw's main event, on the other hand, actually took time to tell an in ring story, and still featured exciting action. I didn't mention it in the match, but damn, for a guy who has the reputation of being a terrible worker, Sid was ON POINT in the match. I don't think I'd ever seen him do an HBK style kip up, but he even broke one of those out, outstanding big man stuff from the dude.
LOWLIGHT OF THE WEEK: I'll give you three guesses. Your first two are wrong. As “meh” as watching the Raw squash matches were, at least they served to get over the right talent without doing so at the expense of an actual star. Hogan vs Luger, sadly, basically nerfed the sh*t out of Luger, who as I mentioned earlier, was touted as being such a hot acquisition and a big deal, but had to fall victim to the ego of a balding orange skinned backstage politician with a creative control clause in his contract. The sad thing is, I might have given something else the lowlight nod if the finish would have come BEFORE Hogan made Luger's Torture Rack look inefficient, and if the Dungeon Of Doom hit the ring and caused the DQ BEFORE “Well, time for me to no sell and hit my finishing sequence” but alas, that's not how Hogan rolls.
NEXT WEEK: The Dungeon of Doom vs the Brothers and Dudes in WAR GAMES! It's WCW Fall Brawl, can Hulk Hogan and his ancillary character friends defeat a bunch of clowns in bad Halloween costumes, and allow Hogan the right to take on the Satanic Bostonian equivalent to Danny Devito in the ring for 5 minutes? Check back here next time to find out!
-The Intern
THE ARCHIVE:
Volume 1: https://www.reddit.com/KayfabeSoup/comments/9kc728/vintage_intern_the_monday_night_wars_volume_1_wcw/
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2018.09.09 20:47 dixiesilvergirl Sunday Metal Chat

Happy Sunday!
Has your store of wealth worked out for you?
We recently sold our set of privateers, not because we had to or because we could make a profit, we actually broke exactly even.
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We then used the proceeds to purchase some gold and platinum(from Mene) at the low spot prices. We felt that we would see more of a gain with the other metals so it was a strategic stack move. We did learn that our store of wealth worked, our money was still there. Now considering it was only about a year it is not a big surprise but it was a good reassuring feeling.
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We are loving the low spot prices as we are still in the stacking mode, However I was thinking the other day what if we HAD to sell and the dip was lasting this long? Our spot price is low due to the scrap refining we have done and buying on dips, so we would be ok, but I am wondering if any of our fellow stackers have had to sell for any reason and take a loss on their investment? We are all at different stages of our stacking and although some are just starting , I am sure that there are some that are in the position they need to sell, so I was wondering how that was worked out for you? And what if any types of silver held their premium or sold better? I think it is important to stay active not only as a buyer but a seller so you have trusted people to work with when you have to, stacking is not enough you must have a plan on what to do with it, well if it doesn’t get lost in a boating accident that is!
📷.
Thanks for Reading and Happy Stacking!
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2017.09.11 00:11 BobW212 BobW212's WrestleMania I Review

(Note - This post - and any one that follows through WrestleMania 9 - were originally posted on TwoPlusTwo.com in the wrestling section of the forum. If there is an interest I will post the first 9 and maybe, just maybe, continue trying to get through these.)
WrestleMania
Preface – This wrap-up is way tl;dr and I won’t make them nearly as long in the future. At least I don’t think I will. Much appreciation to those that get through this.
Mene Gene reading the words to The National Anthem is actually not a bad idea considering how many people botch it. Decent job. Not sure how he got the job of singing the Anthem, but hey.
Tito Santana vs. The Executioner (Buddy Rose)
I know there have been many Executioner’s in wrestling, but according to Wiki, Buddy Rose was the first. However as I say that Gorilla says “This is the first of this Executioner I have seen.” Santana on the other hand comes from a long line of wrestlers who were apparently told by Vince that they would hold the top title in the WWF/E if they signed with them.
Buddycutioner got more offense in this match than I remembered. The action was pretty disjointed. A number of times Tito acted as if Rose was supposed to do something, which caused for a lot of awkward moments.
Always crazy to me how close the crowd was to the ring in these days, as you can see when Rose flies over the top rope and lands perfectly in a chair.
Fine for what it was. 1.75 stars.
King Kong vs. S.D. Jones
Jones was actually quite popular regionally, as I learned from one of The Vault Roundtable discussions as seen on The Network. First time I ever saw King Kong was as a relative of the Bundy’s on Married With Children.
It took me longer to write the above than the match went…certainly longer than 9 seconds though, as they repeated throughout the broadcast
Squash = no rating
Ricky Steamboat vs. Matt Borne
Finally, passable promos by both guys. First time I saw “Maniac” Matt Borne was watching WCCW on ESPN when I was maybe like 8. It came on before Dennis The Menace and Alvin and the Chipmunks.
By the way, if you aren’t for my nostalgia kicks these reviews may not be for you, lol.
Good action here to start, both guys certainly knew what they were doing. Steamboat seems to say a legit “oh ****” after receiving an atomic drop, and he did land awkwardly, but more losing his balance than taking a shot to the little Steamboats. Beautiful crossbody off the top give the win to The Dragon over the future Doink…and Big Josh…who came to the ring WITH A BEAR!
Rating – 2.25 stars. They were both confident in their wrestling abilities, and that was appreciated.
Brutus Beefcake w/ Johnny Valiant Luscious vs. David Sammartino w/ Papa Sammartino
Bruno gets a huge pop in The Garden, obviously. Assuming he was healthy enough, they should have made this some kind of tag-match, but I can see why they were trying to make David somewhat of a standalone. FWIW, my dad saw Bruno walking his dog once in Pennsylvania, he apparently lived close to one of my dad’s old lady friends. He knew who he was, but didn’t want to bother him. Fair play, pops.
Seems like the wrestlers had to delay while they waited for a ref to make his way into the ring. Traditional wrestling leads things off with David getting the better of it. Lots of stalling by Beefcake, which may be for the better as I’m not sure either of these guys could ever wrestle very well. Slow slow pace here, considering fast-forwarding for the first time, but from what I understand from other reviews here this isn’t nearly as bad as it will get.
Action does pick up when Brutus takes over. Luscious Johnny slams David. Here come Dadmartino, moving well enough to answer my question if this could have been a tag match.
Crowd was into it and gave them a chance to look at their idol for a little bit. 1.5 stars, which is higher than I thought I would give based on the first 80 percent of this match.
Just a note, terms you don’t here anymore – “He just got Pearl Harbored,” meaning sneak attack.
(IC Champ) Greg Valentine w/Jimmy Hart vs. Junk Yard Dog
Valentine was better on the mic than I thought, and was getting a good heel reaction from the crowd, even if he did get “already in the ring” treatment. JYD apparently sold out arenas all over the south in his regional days, and the crowd here loved him. I haven’t seen much of his work, but what I have seen I haven’t loved.
I am reminded fairly early in that JYD was known for his ground headbutts, which the crowd ate up. JYD goes to babyface in peril pretty quick, as Greg prepares him for the figure-four. Gorilla has said “This is a happening” about 30 times so far this show, with 22 of them being in this match, because of his boredom, I think.
JYD casually steps to the side as Valentine hits Hart with a shot that came from left field. The Hartaference doesn’t really matter as Valentine uses the ropes to get the win. Tito, the former champ comes in and tells the ref he missed Valentine's feet on the ropes. Ref counts out Hammer, crowd loves it. Winner but not champion, JYD.
Growing up, Valentine was most known in my house for being the wrestling figure I used as Owen Hart because I didn't have an Owen Hart figure.
Dumb ending, but better than I thought it would be. 2. Stars
Iron Sheik and Nikolai Volkoff (With Fred Blassie) vs. Tag Champs U.S. Express (Barry Windham & Mike Rotundo) w/ Cap’n Lou
Two of the wrestlers I would put way near the top of my most underrated list are Windham and Rotundo. Watching early Rotundo in here and in NWA, I thought he was probably close to being a bigger star than he ended up being, not that he had a bad career as I.R.S. Windham is on every internet list of most underrated, so nothing really to add here.
Love Sheik calling Mean Gene, “Gene Mean” here. It could be a joke, but you’re just not sure with the Ol’ Sheik, are ya? Glad to see WWF/E fans have been disrespecting the anthem of other countries for as many years as it has. I mean dudes in the crowd are visibly pissed, as Volkoff is pelted with trash as he sings his homelands anthem.
Did any heel team tag-team move ever work during this era of wrestling? This includes heel managers as well.
That’s a negative thing to start with on a match that was actually very good. The crowd is really into it, being that the team with “U.S.” in their team name was beating the foreigners early on (who to be fair were pretty anti-american) I’m not going to do the research, but I have to imagine this was one of the better matches Volkoff was ever in.
Volkoff and Sheik move around quicker than I ever could have imagined in this match, keeping up with the younger, spryer guys. I honestly forgot the heels won the titles here. How come nobody came out in this match – like Tito – to tell the ref that that Blassie hit Windham with a cane here? Lol wrestling.
Fun match. 3 stars.
Bodyslam Challenge – Big John Studd w/Heenan vs. Andre the Giant
Weird to see Andre as a face here for me as in my childhood wrestling heyday he was almost always a heel. Andre moved fairly decent here, at least a lot better than he would in the upcoming years. Andre chokes Studd for about 30 seconds and the ref sort of just watches, it’s cool though because he’s a good guy. As I finish the last sentence Andre puts Studd in a bearhug for about forever. Odd that Studd is playing the role of heel in distress trying to get out of the bear hug.
No rhythm to the match and thankfully it was short. Crowd seemed a bit into it. I’m going to stay away from a dud and give this .25 of a star.
Women’s Champ Leilani Kai w/Fabulous Moolah vs. Wendi Richter w/Cyndi Lauper
Kai got the usually dooming “already in the ring treatment while Richter and Lauper get one of the biggest pops of the night so far. I don’t remember who wins this match but I’d put money on the result is decided by Lauper getting the better of Moolah and Richter taking the title.
I was almost right, but no not really. Kai loses after a Steamboat-esque flying crossbody is reversed (after about 30 seconds of them trying to reverse it) for Richter to become your new champ.
1.25 stars. This loses a quarter star for Moolah “tripping” over the rope on her way into the ring and then flopping another time while getting up.
Roddy Piper and Paul Orndorff w/Bob Orton vs. Hulk Hogan and Mr T. w/Jimmy Snuka
Just got to this point of writing the review on the two plus two forum but lost it when I tried to submit the post. Fun times.
The Fink helps Billy Martin introduce Liberace and special guest enforcer Muhammad Ali to the ring. Ali still looks good here. Being my all-time favorite athlete it’s good to see him here still moving around and jawing to the crowd.
The match was a lot better than I remembered. Mr. T was at least passable as a celebrity turned wrestler, kicking the match off with Mr. T. Mr. T got his big break in Rocky 3 after Ernie Shavers (one of the hardest punchers in heavyweight boxing history) accidently hit Sly a little too hard. At least that’s how the story goes.
I can see why being a heel in this time frame was a tough job and you legit probably had to be a bit of a bad ass and be able to hold your own. While Orton and Piper are double teaming T and Hogan outside of the ring you can see them being pelted by trash and bottles and police officers are seemingly holding back a few of the fans trying to get to the heels.
Snuka gets his big Wrestlemania moment by first teasing a splash early in the match when all the extras including Ali get involved for a minute and later when he headbutts Orton. Right after the headbutt Orton climbs the top rope with the intent to hit Hogan with his armcast while Ordorff was holding him. Orton smashes Mr. Wonderful and Hogan gets the win.
Better than I remembered. I think the crowd helps my rating of 2.75 stars.
Final Thoughts – To me it seems the NWA had a better roster, better talent, and better matches in this time period. I now know that WrestleMania was a financial success, which it had to be, as WWF put a lot of eggs this one basket. I have a hard time figuring out why or how this show blossomed into WWF leading the world in pro wrestling, and I think it has to do more with Vince’s desire to take over the territories over time than in one show. But again, if this show bombed, who knows where WWF would be today, if anywhere.
I just learned on the Stone Cold/Vince podcast that when Vince offered to buy out the territories it was with balloon payments. Basically, a dollar down with a promise to pay more later. It’s no wonder everyone, except one (if I recall) said no to Vince. The story before that – at least to me – always read Vince offered each a pile of money and they all said no because Vince was brash or they were just being jerks or something. It really does change history around a little knowing that Vince was offering virtually nothing, or to them, an empty promise. This isn’t a knock on Vince, as it makes his takeover that much more impressive to me. Apparently his pockets weren’t as deep as I thought, and he needed the success of things like WrestleMania to happen, or the WWF would have (could have?) folded.
The show was better than I remembered. Being I had only one match at 3 stars, I can guess it won’t hold up that well in my final rankings – if I ever make it that far – but historical significance alone may see it stay out of the bottom 4th.
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